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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Why has Portugal's entry to the EU come as a blessing?
it has released funds to modernise the industry (stagnant under dictatorship of António Salazar. First emphasis was on improving the cellars and equipment, now to vineyards. Greater respect to indigenous grape varieties, being more featured on labels. Single estate (quinta) (instead of cooperative cellar)has come to the fore, decline in quantity, distinct increase in quality.
indigenous or international grapes in Portugal?
profusion of indigenous grapes (known in different regions under different names). For vinhos regionais international varieties are planted : eg. Syrah, CS, blended with local varieties
Climate in Portugal?
much climatic diversity. most important influence is Atlantic => maritime climate : warm summers, cool wet winters/
In inland vineyard areas (Douro, Dão, Alentejo/Alentejano) => continental : hot and dry.
Diversity in style of wine come from large differences in anual rainfall and average temperature.
Name the different levels of wine and French equivalent
Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC) = AOC
Indicação de Proveniência Regulamentada (IPR) = VDQS
Vinho regional = Vin de Pays
Vinho de mesa = Vin de table
How identify IPR and DOC wines?
paper seal (Selo de Origem), originaly on neck of the bottle, now more as back-label.
diffence between Reserva and Garrafeira?
Reserva : single vintage stated on the label, must have passed a tasting panel. If DOC, must have higher percentage of natural alcohol than normal DOC.
Garrafeira : can be applied to all wines, rest parameters as for Reserva.In adition : red wine needs to be aged 2 years in cask + 1 year in bottle, white 6 months cask + 6 months bottle
which two extra terms on the label to indicate potential additional quality?
Reserva and Garrafeira
Key wines of Northern Portugal
Vinho Verde DOC
Douro DOC
Bairrada DOC
Vinho verde region :where, climate
Between Douro River in South and River Minho North, 90 kms inland from coast. Climate is warm, extremely high rainfall, mainly during winter, some in summer and at vintage time
Vinho Verde : training
historically trained up trees. Most recently planted in normal double-cordon, traditional ones use cruzeta (high-trained cordon system)
Why name Vinho Verde?
refers to youth or greenness, as traditionally latest vintage is drunk.
Vinho Verde : most important grapes for white wine + caracter
Loureira and Paderña (Rieslinglike fresh aroma, crisp acidity, by law, alcohol not higher than 11,5 %)
In north of region, more expensive wines, often single quintas from Alvarinho (Albariño): higher in alcohol, little or no CO2, still light, fresh aromatic green apple fruit character.
Explain "prickle" in the Vinho Verde
Traditionally malolactic fermentation and bottling during vintage after harvest. Nowadays mal. ferm. no longer permitted but some Co2 is injected.
Vinho Verde for export : what added?
sweetened by adding some wine whose fermentation has been arrested. (no resemblance to wines consumed in Portugal)
Douro light wines : before and after DOC status (when?)
1982. before, light wines where made of grapes that were not needed for production of Port (beneficio controlled the amount). Sinds DOC, reputation has grown, some wines most prestigious and expensive of the country.
Douro, what grapes and wines?
trad. same as for Port. In upper reaches of Douro Valley planting of CS, SB and even Gewurztraminer.
Best reds from 'light wine' vineyards : full-bodied and fruity,sometimes 'Port-like' aroma, firm tannins and crisp acidity. Viticulture is labour-intensive and expensive, fruit vinified with great care, resulting in wines of extremely high quality. The whites, particular from high-altitude vineyards shot fresh varietal fruit and crisp acidity.
Dão : where and name, climate
South of Douro, 80 km inland. name from a tributary of River Mondego. Vineyards between 200 and 400 meters above sea level on plateau of granitic soil. Sheltered on all sides by mountains => much drier than on coast.
Dão : grapes and wines
Wines changed since mid 90's from being dull and heavy to much more fruit character.
Jaen : early maturing fruity wines, mainly red, deeply coloured, fruity and lighter in tannins and acidity than most Portugese reds., Touriga Nacional : wines to age. Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo).
T.N. and T.R. are used to supply tannins, acids and more fruit to blends.
Best white wines are full-bodied and rather nutty, made of Encruzado grape.
Bairrada ; name, soil, climate, where?
Portuguese word for clay (bairro). Soils mainly heavy clay with high limestone content. Damp,rainy region. Between Dão and sea, North of Coimbra.
Red Bairrada?
From Baga grape (style compared to Nebbiolo)/ Trad. fermented with stalks, took decades to reach their peak, needed decanting. Modern Baga still plenty of tannis and acidity but more peppery berry fruit.
White Bairrada?
15 % of Bairrada production white, mainlu from highly acidic Bical grape. When made from fully ripe grapes : wonderfull exotic, peachy perfume which becomes toasty with age
Southern Portugal : Key Wines
Ribatejo DOC, Alentejo DOC, VR Alentejano
Ribatejo : name? where?
'banks of Tagus', vineyards in alluvial plain of Taag, high yields
Ribatejo white?
from Fernão Pires, large quant. of neutral dry white for local market
Ribatejo Red?
trad. grapes bv. Castelão Frances, and selection of int. varieties. When yields restricted can make wine wiht crisp acidity, raspberryish fruit, firm tannins, when yields increase,wines become thin and harsh.
Alentejo : Name? Where? Also important for? Climate? Soil?
'beyond the Tagus'. South east of Lisbon, stretching to Spanish frontier. Is cork oak region. Continental climate, very low rainfall, hot summers. soils predominantly loam, mixed whit granite and schist.
Alentejo red?
Trincadeira : dark plummy wines, hints of chocolate and coffee, further enhanced when aged in oak. Aragonez contributes to blends or bottled seperately.
Alentejo white?
Roupeiro and Antão Vaz make full-bodied , honeyed white wines, low acidity, sometimes blended in crisp, aromatic Arinto (same as Paderña) Some ambitious wines fermented or aged in oak to provide extra depth and complexity
Vinhos Regionais exported from?
Altentejano, Terras do Sado (south of Lisbon) and Beiras (Bairrada and Dão. Growers experiment with foreign grapes as CS and Syrah in blends
Vinhos de Mesa?
considerabel succes with slightly sweet rosé wines with light prickle (in USA called crackling rosés). Style is chosen to meet need of the market.