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13 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Stefan Boltzman Equation
LW = epsilon*sigma*Tk^4

(epsilon = emissivity ~1)
(sigma = stefan boltzman constant)
Tk = temp in Kelvin
soil is saturated =
a soil cannot hold anymore water in its pores. It cannot retain additional water until water is depleted from some of these pores. This promotes anaerobic conditions (w/o oxygen).
soil at field capacity =
the amount of water soil can hold against the force of gravity.
soil at wilting point =
the amount of water in a soil when a plant cannot obtain enough water to remain turgid.
which soil has the most water at saturation, a sand or a clay?
which soil holds the most plant-available soil water, a loam or a clay?
once a soil is at field capacity, how is it most likely to lose water?
what is the proximal cause of surface runoff?
low infiltration rate
why is surface runoff usually considered a problem in watershed management? (3 reasons)
1. erosion
2. sediment transport
3. flooding

(to prevent runoff, improve soil infiltration rate)
name 5 factors that are likely to cause surface runoff.
1. low soil infiltration rate
2. high rate of rainfall
3. long duration of rainfall
4. not much surface roughness
5. steep slope
infiltration rates normally decline as a storm continues. why?
soil reaches field capacity and eventually saturation.
why might an overgrazed rangeland have a lower infiltration rate than a properly grazed one?
-less vegetation
what is "interception" and why is it important in the hydrologic cycle?
interception is when water is caught in the vegetation and evaporates before it reaches the ground.

interception = precip on veg - streamflow - throughfall