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69 Cards in this Set

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democracy
Government in which the people hold ruling power.
reincarnation
In Hinduism, belief in the rebirth of the soul in another bodily form.
yoga
A system of exercises practiced as part of the Hindu discipline to promote control of the body and mind.
Vedic gods
The gods that are described in the ancient Indian religious scriptures called the Vedas. The gods form the basis of Hinduism.
Aryans
The Aryans were a group of Indo-European nomadic people who moved from central Asia to India in about 1500 BC.
karma
In Hindu belief, it is all the actions that affect a person's fate in the next life.
dharma
In Hindu belief, it is an individual's religious and moral duties.
deity
A god or goddess.
moksha
In Hindu belief, it is the ultimate goal of existence, or achieving union with brahman.
Mahabharata
An ancient religious epic of India. It contains stories about gods, kings, and common people.
Siddhartha Gautama
Indian prince who founded the philosophy of Buddhism.
nirvana
In Buddhism, union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth.
Dalai Lama
The traditional governmental ruler and highest priest of the dominant sect of Buddhism in Tibet and Mongolia.
Zen Buddhism
Type of Buddhism commonly accepted in Japan. It stresses meditation and devotion to duty.
Silk Road
Named after China's most valuable export. This trade route eventually linked China and the Middle East.
Alexander the Great
Young king who created an empire which included Greece, Persia, and Northern Africa. He allowed the Hellenism, or ancient Greek culture, to spread and flourish.
assassinate
To murder a public figure, usually for political reasons.
filial piety
Respect for parents.
philosophy
System of ideas.
autocrat
Ruler with unlimited authority.
merit
System in which people gain success on the basis of ability and performance.
tragedy
In ancient Greece, it was a play that focused on human suffering and very often ended in disaster.
Renaissance
The period from about 1350 until 1500, during which, western Europeans experienced a profound cultural reawakening; signaled the beginning of modern times.
citadel
A fortress in a commanding position in or near a city.
Homer
Great Greek writer. He wrote the epics, the "Iliad" and the "Odyssey", which are still widely read today.
aristocracies
Governments headed by a privileged minority or upper class.
tyrant
In ancient Greece, it was a ruler who gained power by force. (Not necessarily bad.)
polis
City-state in ancient Greece.
helot
Member of a class of state-owned slaves in ancient Sparta.
oligarchy
Government in which ruling power belongs to a few people.
monarchy
Government in which a king or queen exercises central power.
direct democracy
System of government in which citizens participate directly in the day-to-day affairs of government rather than through elected representatives.
acropolis
Highest and most fortified point within a Greek city-state.
colony
A settlement of people outside their homeland, linked with the parent country and direct government control.
imperialism
Domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region.
jury
Group of people sworn to make a decision in a legal case.
Socrates
The most famous Greek philosopher who emphasized reason and inquiry. Developed a famous questioning technique named after himself.
heresy
Belief that is contrary to the official teachings of the government.
exile
Forced removal from one's native country.
comedy
In ancient Greece, it was a play that mocked people or social customs.
republic
System of government in which officials are chosen by the people.
patrician
Member of the land-holding, upper class in ancient Rome.
veto
Power to block a government action.
tribune
Official who was elected by the plebeians to protect their interests.
plebeian
Member of the lower class in ancient Rome, including farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders.
constitution
Plan of government.
consul
Official from the patrician class who supervised the government and commanded the armies.
praetor
An annually elected magistrate of the ancient Roman Republic, ranking below but having approximately the same functions as a consul.
dictator
Ruler who has complete control over a government; in ancient Rome, a leader was appointed to rule for six months in times of emergency.
monopoly
Complete control of a product or business by one person or group.
Julius Caesar
Skilled military commander and absolute ruler of Rome. He attempted to reform the Roman Republic before being famously assassinated.
soothsayer
One who claims to be able to foretell events or to predict the future.
engineering
Application of science and mathematics to develop useful structures and machines.
idealism
The act or practice of envisioning things in an ideal form.
realism
Artistic movement whose aim was to represent the world as it is.
mosaic
Picture made from chips of colored stone or glass.
aqueduct
A bridge-like structure supporting a conduit or canal passing over a river or low ground.
inflation
Economic cycle that involves a rapid rise in prices, linked to a sharp increase in the amount of money available.
Jesus Christ
The founder of Christianity.
apostle
Leader or teacher of a new faith or movement.
messiah
Savior sent by God.
disciple
One who embraces and assists in spreading the teachings of another. Also one of Jesus' original followers.
martyr
Person who suffers or dies for his or her beliefs.
paganism
One who has no religion.
pope
Head of the Roman Catholic Church.
icon
Holy image of Christ, the Virgin Mary, or a saint venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
bishop
High-ranking Church official with authority over a local area, or diocese.
province
Land outside the city of Rome that was controlled by the Roman government.
anarchy
State of lawlessness or political disorder.