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37 Cards in this Set

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mercenaries
A group of soldiers serving in a foreign army for pay.
Justinian
Byzantine emperor who ruled from 527 to 565. He had the Hagia Sophia built and he wrote a code of laws.
Schism
Permanent division in a church.
mosque
Muslim house of worship.
excommunicate
Exclusion from the Roman Catholic Church as a penalty for refusing to obey Church laws.
Sheikh
A leader of an Arab family or village.
Muhammad
An Arab prophet and the founder of Islam. His teachings are the basis of the Muslim holy book, the Qur'an.
Hijra
Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622.
Sunni
The branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors of Muhammad.
Islam
The religious faith of Muslims. It includes a belief in Allah as the sole deity and in Muhammad as his prophet.
Shiite
The branch of Islam that regards Ali and his descendants as the legitimate successors to Muhammad, and rejects the first three caliphs.
hajj
The pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are expected to make at least once in their lifetime.
caliph
Successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims.
jihad
A fair, defensive war.
minaret
Slender tower of a mosque, from which Muslims are called to prayer.
calligraphy
Fancy or stylized handwriting.
astrolabe
Instrument used to determine latitude by measuring the position of the stars.
hejab
Traditional form of dress worn by Muslim women.
polygamy
Custom that allows men to have more than one wife.
muezzin
Mosque official who climbs to the top of a minaret to call the faithful to prayer.
sultan
Muslim ruler.
vizier
Chief minister who supervised the business of government.
Kublai Khan
Mongol emperor from 1260-1294. He was a grandson of Ghengis Khan and the founder of Mongol dynasty in China. He received the European explorer, Marco Polo, from 1275-1292.
Genghis Khan
Mongol conquerer who united the Mongol tribes. He created an empire stretching from China to the Danube River and into Persia.
Marco Polo
Great Italian traveler who returned from China and wrote stories which encouraged many Europeans to visit the far east.
chivalry
Code of conduct for knights in the Middle Ages; based on the ideals of honor and courtesy.
shogun
The supreme military commander who held more power than the emperor.
samurai
Member of the warrior class.
daimyo
Warrior lord directly below the shogun.
bushido
The code of conduct for samurai during the feudal period in Japan.
haiku
Form of Japanese poetry that expresses a feeling, thought, or idea in three lines, or seventeen syllables.
guerilla
Fighters who use the strategy of hit and run raids.
shaman
A member of a tribal society who acts as a spiritual adviser by communicating with the spirit world.
alliance
A formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense.
tribute
A payment that conquered peoples were forced to make to their conquerors.
calpullis
Family groups that controlled land collectively and ran local institutions, such as schools.
idolatrous
The worship of idols. Having to do with the worship of idols.