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29 Cards in this Set

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The First Modern War
The First Modern War refers to the fact that the WWI was the frst war that involved modern weaponry adn involved civilians on a massive scale. It led to teh techniquse of modern warfare that are used in future wars. It also refers to the massive loss of civilians on a large scale.
"La Bella Epoch"
A term meaning the beautiful era. At this time, France was very large and the population was lareg in general in Western Europe. The population is productive and has created an industrial revolution. It was the first part of teh globe to be urbanized. It also dominates the world intellectually.
Refers to the british government. It was made up of two primary houses, teh house of commons and the house of lords. THe houes of commons was done by free elections--all men voted. The house of lords was made up of nobility and and wasdd not elected. Men who will make up teh executive branch will come from the house of commons.
David Lloyd George
From England-became prime minister later in the war and will lead theh country to ictory in WWI.
English Home Rule Bill
Passed by parliment
It gave England some measure of self gevernment. However,this rule never goes into effect because the war breaks out.
Chamber of Departures
This chamber divided the country up into uniform electoral districts. The senate was less democratically elected-it was elected by the major and other officials. It illustrated that te French did not seem to be able to get the election process down. Several parts had to put togeather coalitions or alliances
George Clemenceau
Out of power when teh war breaks out. He speakes fluent English and had a medical degree. He had a career as a writer and he was an intellectual in politics. He was perhaps the greatest leader of a democracy at war in the 20th centurey. He takes over as prime minister and minister of France war in 1917.
Lorraien-Franco Prussian War
The Germans won and gained control of Also-Lorraine and that made the French mad. Napolean the third was captured. France became a republic. The 39 German states adn Prussia unified to form the German empire. Germany became the greatest land power. France was angry about the defeat and humiliated by teh peace treaty.
The Congo
This land is controlled by By Beligim and makes it the #2 industrial country and it ranks 6th in the world economy. Several Eurpean nations will later on fight for control of the congo.
Kaiser William II
The Emperor of Germany. The Chancellor has no relationship to democratic elections and decides he is not responsible to the electorate-know for approacing problems with an open mouth-he announces a new naval policy that threatens England. He surrounds himself with people who can not threaten him such as Theobold Von Bethmann
Franz Josef
dislikes anything modern-he is conservative and his mind is in the past-the officials around him are not brilliant. He got used to excersising his ability to rule by decree.
Tzar Nicholas II
Leader of Russia-a man of limited intelligence. His diary reads that he is unaware that his country is fallign apart adn that a revolution is in the wings. He had a conservative outlook andn believes in absolute power. He is easily dominated by his conservative advisors and his wife.
Social Democrats
The social Democrats in Russia consisted of teh Bolsheviks and the Menshiviks. The Bolsheviks believed that there should be a change in Russia and that the money should be spread aroudn adn not concentrated in teh upper classes. The Menshiviks believed that the change in Russia woudl coem through the ballot box and voting. The social democrats wanted a revolution that woudl bring about land reform
Refers to the sate council in Russia. It's officials are elected, but only wealthy peopel can vote. It has the power to make the alaws but the laws can only take effect if they are approved by the cabinet. It has little effect on important policy matters.
Refers to peasants in Russia who work the land but do not own the land. The peopel who owned the land have all teh power. The mirs of Russia take over the land and this leads to discontent and hunger. This was the basis of the discotent that led to the revolution in Russia.
Otto Von Bismark
Leader of Germany. He became the cheif minister in the Prussian government under William I. Heh decided to mere the remaining south German states with the North German confederation understood that Germany had nothing to gain from war. He orchestrated a complex and duplicate policy that is designe to keep Europe at peace. Foreign policy operaed in secret diplomacy. He had two objectives-to neutraize the French and to make sure that war did not erupt over the eastern question. He signs an agreement with every European power saying that he wants no more European engagment.
Dual Alliance
Refers to an alliance between Germany adn Austria Hungry. It states that if Austria is attacked, Germany will fight on Austria's side and vise versa. It becomes a triple alliance when Italy gets involved
Napolionic Code
During the time of Napolean France became a superpower in Europe
Theophile Delcase
Became Frances Foreign minister in 1898. he greatly strengthened the country's diplomatic position. He was an imperialist who looked forward to expanding France's position in the Meditteranian and Africa and feared Germany becoming a power in this area.
Alfred Tripolitz
A close friend of William II. He became naval secretary in 1897. He created the Navy league(a propaganda organization) designed to agitate for the development of a large fleet that would be twice the size of Britians.
Entente Cordiale
Better relations between Britian adn France. Delcase and Lord Lansdow conferred paersonally. Landsdow and Paul Cambon completed and agreement in 1904 that became know as the Entente Coriale. It means friendly undersatnding. France recognized the prepoderant position that the British granted a French a "Free hand" in Morocco except for the Straight of Gibralter.
Triple Alliance
Formed from the Dual alliance. It was anti-Russian in character because of Austria's concern over a possible war with Russia. It provided that if Russia attacked either partner,the other would come to its aid.If either were the victim of an attack by another power,the remaining power would follow a policy of benevolent neutrality. It remained the cornerstone of Germany's foreign policy until WWI.
Boers War
Prime miister of of Britians cape colony in Africa dreamed of establishing a trans-African railroad that would lind cape town with Cairo-amongn the territories covered by the Rhodes were the republic of Transvaal and the orange free state that were both controlled by teh Boers(the decendents of Dutch settlers). Willam II sent a congradulatory telegram to the priem minister of Transvaal hailing his countries ability ot repel the raid withoutu help from friendly powers, implying that Germany would have been prepared to supply that aid if necessary. This angered the British. Britian went to war with the Boers in 1899. They underestimated the Boers, who bestowed many casualties on them. Germany supported theh Boers.
The First Moroccan Crisis
French want to add morocco to their empire and in 1905 the Moroccan ruler gives in. A diplomatic crisis threatening war erupts. Germans attempted to test the relationship between Britian and France and to prevent teh growth fo teh French empire. Emperor William II announces in a speech that he supports Moraccan independence. The French attempt to back away and this forces Delcasse from office
Second Moroccan Crisis
The French send troops to stabalize Morocco. This is the way that the French come in the back door. The French attempted to extend their influence in Morocco again. Germany sends the SMS panther (armed gunship) to Agadir (Moroccan port). The Germans demand a large part of the French Congo. Theh french refuse and David Lloyd George gives a speechh in which he essentially pledges his British support to the French if germans decide to declare war. The Germans accept French ddomain in Moroccoand recieve a small part of the French Congo
The Tripple Entente
The final step in the creation of a counterweight to the Tripple Alliance. It consisted of the bringing to geather of Frances France's ally Russia and France's partner in the Entente Cordial, Britian. The Germans have an armed vessel in Morroco and the British get involved. The french ultimately obtain Morocco.
The First Balkan War
The Balkan league was made up of Serbia,Montegenero, Bulgaria, and Greece attacks the German empire and take quite a bit of land from the Turks, Forcing Turkey to ask for an armistance. This shows the wakness of the Turkish empire and raises the easstern question.
The Second Balkan War
The Balkan League cannot decide how to divide up the land that they conqured and this leads them to go to war with eachother. Romania and Turkey join in the war in an effort to gain some land. Bulgaria surrenders and the treaty of Bucharest allowed serbia, Greece and Romania to have a piece of Bulgaria and the major fortress city of Adrianople was given to the Turks. THis was bad news for Austria Hungry because the Bulgarian defeat strencthened Serbia. Germany had ignored Austria Hungry and supported Romania.Romania's loyalty to the triple alliance became questionable.
Anglo-Russian Entente
Not a military agreement,it was used to settele disputes and improve relations. The Russians are given Northern Persia and its oil markets,the British take Southern Persia, and neutral strip is left in teh middle. The Russians agree to stay out of Afghanastan,and both Russia and Britian agree to stay out of Tibet. It stregthens the Entente Cordiale,because Britian has smoothed relations with France's military ally, Russia