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23 Cards in this Set

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Who, what, when, where, why, and how, of Enlightenment
~Who-Europeans, Descartes, Newton, philosophers
~What-scientific method, cause & effect relationship between natural events, rationalism, Encyclopedia
~When-1700's
~Where-France and the rest of Europe
~Why-
~How-Europeans developed new ways of thinking
Who, what, when, where, why, and how, of Commercial Revolution
~Who-
~What-Changes to European economy
~When-1400-1750
~Where-
~Why-
~How-standardization of $, shares of stock, mecantilism, favorable balance of trade
Who, what, when, where, why, and how, of American Revolution
~Who-Philosophers, Diderot, Smith, Montesqeuie, Rousseiu, Hobbes, etc.
~What-Age of Reason
~When-17th and 18th centuries
~Where-France, England, and US
~Why-books & ideas being published
~How-publishing of books & ideas
Adam Smith
-1776, "Wealth of Nations"
-Political Economy-most influential work
-examined...
-economic freedom
-division of labor
-function of markets
-international implications of Laissez-Faire economy
Thomas Hobbes
-"Leviathan," 1651
-Focused on...
-Necessity of strong central authority to avoid evil of discord & Civil War
-Any abuses of power by authority accepted as price of peace
-The state, according to Hobbes, regarded as monster, composed of men pursuing their selfish needs
John Locke
-1632-1704
-Famous English philosopher
-Known as "father of liberal philosophy"
-wrote about liberal rights in "Two Treatives of Liberal Govt." (1690)
-Main purpose of govt.-to protect peoples' natural rights
-kings should not have absolute power
-kings should not be able to deprive people of their natural rights
Voltaire
-"Candide," 1759
-Believed in defending civil liberties, including freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial
-Criticized the church and French institutions
-One of the most influential figures of his time
Diderot
-Editor of the FIRST encyclopedia (main source of the Enlightenment)
-Had great influence on the intellectual and political developement of pre-revolution France
Rousseau
-Influenced French Rev., communism, socielist theory, and the growth of nationalism
-Contended man good by nature, "noble savage" in state of nature, but corrupted by society
-He argued that the goal of govt. should be to secure freedom, equality, and justice for all within the state, regardless of the will of the majority
-Politics and morality should not be seperated
Montesquieu
-Govt. powers should be seperated & balanced to guarantee individual rights & freedom
-Helped bring about French Rev.
-"Spirit of Laws," 1748
-States that...
-3 types of govt.(Republic, Monarchy, and Despotism)
-Relationship between ares: climate, geography, and circumstances, and the type of govts. created
State of Nature
-Life w/ no govt. & no laws
Social Compact
-agreement people make amongst themselves to create a govt. to rule them & protect their natural rights. In this agreement, the people agree to obey the laws created by that govt.
Natural Rights
-Everyone has the right to life, liberty, and property
-have these rights just becuase they are human beings
-born w/ these rights & they should not be taken away w/out a person's agreement
Causes of the American Rev.
-French & Indian War
-taxes
-Intolerable Acts
How Dec. of Ind. ties into Enlightenment
-John Locke's ideas about natural rights
-Rousseau, freedom, equality, & justice. Politics & morality should not be seperated.
-Voltaire, freedom of religion & right to fair trial
Causes of Exploration
Developement of new economic policies
Govts. were excited
Standardization of $
The process of improving efficiency in the handling of $ between cultures. Giving $ a fixed value.
Mercantilism
Theory that suggested the world contained only a fixed amount of wealth. To increase it's share, a country had to take some wealth away from other countries.
Favorable Balance of Trade
Situation in which a country sells more goods than it buys in a foreign country.

To gain a favorable balance of trade, countries could...
-reduce the amount of goods imported into the country by impossing tariffs on foreign goods
-Try to increase the value of it's exports
-Try to make itself self-sufficient, produce everything it needed and then export their own goods
Joint-Stock Company
A business organization that raised $ by selling stock or shares in the company to investors
Christopher Columbus
Led trip to what he thought was India, but was really North America. Brought more ships and loaded them w/ slaves back to England. Name of people???
Loyalist (Tories) vs. Patriots
Loyalists opposed independence and patriots favored independence
Separation of Powers
No part of govt. has more power than the others