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37 Cards in this Set

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Define The Vedas. (Hinduism)
Sacred "oral" texts of the Aryans; often reffered to as the foundations of Hinduism.
Define The Upanishads (Hinduism)
Teachings from highly realized spiritual masters that explain the nature of absolute reality.
Define The Bhagavad Gita
a dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna that emphasizes human nature and purpose.
Arjuna (Hinduism)
the chief hero of the Bhagavad-Gita, who strugles with selfish desires but is reminded of his duty and the immortality of the soul by Lord Krishna.
Krishna (Hinduism
An avatar of Vishnu, who appears in the Bhagavad-Gita as the teacher of Arjuna.
Vishnu
"The Preserver" a deity whos most important human incarnation is the Krishna of the Bhagavad-Gita.
Shiva
"The Destroyer" the third member of the Trimurti, along with Brahma the Creator and Vishnu the Preserver.
Dharma
Fulfilling your duty.
Moksha
Freedom from the mortal world. (Liberation)
Samsara
the endless cycle of births, deaths, and rebirths to which all beings are subject.
(Buddhism) Siddhartha Gautama
Indian religious leader: founder of Buddhism.
Theravada Buddhism
A conservative form of Buddhism that adheres to Pali scriptures emphasizing "personal salvation through your own efforts."
Mahayana Buddhism
The Buddhist doctrine emphasizing a common search for universal salvation through faith alone; (Actually pray to Buddha)
Zen Buddhism
A Buddhist doctring asserting that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith.
Nirvana
a place or state characterized by freedom from or oblivion to pain, worry, and the external world.
Anatman (or Anatta)
"No-Self" In Buddhism, the doctrine that there is no permanent, underlying substance that can be called the soul.
Arhat
A Buddhist who has achieved Nirvana through rigorous discipline and ascetic practices.
Bodhisattva
A person who has attained Enlightenment, but postpones Nirvana in order to help others to attain Enlightenment.
Koan
In Zen Buddhism; a problem or riddle that admits no logical solution and requires meditation upon the question.
Zazen
(in Zen Buddhism) deep meditation undertaken whilst sitting upright with legs crossed. Also known as sit-meditation.
Identify and briefly explain the four goals (or wants) of the Hindu vision of the good life.
Hinduism holds up four goals that define the good life including pleasure, worldly success,civic duty, and liberation.
Identify and briefly explain the four "stages of life" in Hinduism.
The four stages of life in Hinduism include; 1. The student stage when a "boy" would undergo education of the vedas learning his dharma. 2. The Household Stage when the man is expected to marry, raise a family, and perform civic duties. 3. The Retirement Stage; when the man is old he becomes a hermit or a forrest dweller turning to meditation and scriptural studies. 4. Wandering Stage; The man bids his family goodbye and wanders the world in persuit of liberation.
Explain the meaning of the term yoga and the primary goal of yoga. Be sure to define Atman and Brahman and describe some of their characteristics.
Yoga means to control, unite or "to yoke." In Hinduism, this means to achieve salvation the union of Atman (The true self) with Brahman (the supreme being) to achieve liberation. Comparative to Buddhist reaching Nirvana.
Compare and contrast bhakti yoga and jnana yoga. Be sure to explain how bhakti yoga and jnana yoga differ concerning the view of God and our relationship to God
Jnana yoga is the path to knowledge in which their view of God is impersonal and without attributes. Bhakti Yoga is total self-devotion to God yeilding that their is a personal and attributed God in this yoga. Either yoga can lead to liberation.
Describe karma yoga. Be sure to explain how one performs action (or work) when practicing karma yoga. And give an example of karma yoga.
Karma yoga focuses on the adherence to duty (dharma) while remaining detached from the reward. A primary example would be the character of Arjuna from the Bhagavad Gita as it depicts his struggles between his duty as a warrior and killing his selfish desires depicted as his family and friends in the story.
Explain the law of karma.
The moral law of cause and effect. Hindus believe one’s actions have consequences both for this life and for future ones. Every act we make, and even every thought and every desire we have, shape our future experiences.
Does the Bhagavad Gita condone violence? Describe the mystic’s allegorical reading of the battle that opens the Bhagavad Gita. What does this battle represent? What is Arjuna supposed to kill?
No, although the Gita is solely based on war it is more metaphorical for the war with the innerself and about overcoming or "killing" selfish desires and carrying out one's duty (dharma).
What was Siddhartha Gautama’s life like before he became a Buddha? What did he see on his four trips outside his palace walls? Why at the age of 29 did he leave his wife and new born baby? Was this a selfish decision to leave? Why or why not?
Before achieving Buddha, Siddhartha was a prince who lived in a palace and indulged himself human pleasures such as women and wealth and despised "the ugly." However, the very things he despised he encountered on his trips outside the palace walls including an old man, a sick man, a dead man, and a monk; all of which opened his eyes to life beyond pleasures especially human pain and suffering. At age 29, he left his palace in search of a a cure for human pain and suffering. In my opinon, when Siddhartha initally made this decision it was a selfish decision simply because human pain and suffering scared him, however his discoveries caused it to be selfless as he began to find cures.
In the Second Noble Truth, the Buddha explains that the reason we experience pain, suffering, and sorrow is tanha. Explain what this means and provide an example.
Tanha are selfish human cravings and desires.Once again, the Gita still seves as a good example although it is a Hindu book. The character Arjuna suffers from sorrow because he has not killed off his selfish desires which in this case was not to kill his friends and family although it was his duty assigned from the deities.
Explain how the Buddha can be understood as a physician treating the “problem of life.” Be sure to explain how the Four Noble Truths relate to a doctor treating a patient.
The Four Noble truths relate to a physicians diagnosis in this fashion; The first noble truth states that life is suffering (Dukkha) which can also be related to a "patient with symptoms." The second noble truth states reveals the origins of a persons tanha which is similar to a diagnosis. The third and fourth noble truth both deal with the cessation of dukkha which is similar to that of a perscription.
Why is the Eightfold Path known as the “Middle Path”? Describe the three ethical steps (or parts) to the Eightfold Path.
The Eight-fold path is called the "middle-path" because it is the path between hedonism (pleasure-seeking) and asceticism (self discipline). The three ethical steps to the eightfold path include Ethical Conduct, Mental Discipline, and Wisdom.
Describe the Zen use of the koan. What is the purpose of the koan? Be sure to discuss the problem with reason and words.
The Koan is used in Zen Buddhism to force the student to crash the word-barrier. The idea is to experience enlightenment directly for oneself.
The Heart Sutra (the Prajnaparamita) says that all things are empty and thus nothing can be born and nothing can die.Using the example of a piece of paper, explain what this means.
Using the example of the paper, although it appears to just be a blank or "empty" sheet of paper, however that paper couldn't exist with out trees, and trees can't exist with out rain and sunshine etcetera... everything in the universe exists because of somthing else thus all things are empty.
Compare and contrast the Hindu and the Buddhist view of the self. Explain at least one major difference?
The one major difference between Hindu and Buddhist view of the self would be the Atman and Anatman. In Hinduism the goal is to unite Atman with Brahman, however Buddhist believe that everything is constantly changing including a person and nothing is permanent.
Compare and contrast Hinduism and Buddhism on the theme of desire. How are their views similar? Explain
As far as desire, both Hinduism and Buddhism say that it is to seek out pleasures desires as long as they are sought out intellegently such as acheving enlightment. However the buddhist say that selfish desires lead to human pain and suffering.
Discuss at least three ways in which early Buddhism (as developed by Siddhartha Gautama) differs from Hinduism and our general view of religion.
1. Hinduism believes that only a select few are able to achieve enlightment, however the buddhist completely reject the caste system and say the liberation can be achieved by anyone. 2 Buddhist believe that there is no such thing as Atman as in Hinduism. Buddhist believe that everything is constantly changing, therefore there can be no such thing as a "true-self".
What advice do you think the Buddha would give Arjuna? Would the Buddha give Arjuna the same advice as Krishna? Explain.
Because the foundations of Buddhism were based from Hinduism, I dont believe that Buddha wouldn't have given Arjuna different advice. However, I feel because Buddhism is all about compassion for the human being I feel the Gita would have had a much different allegorical setting different from war.