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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of the following is not considered to be one of the worlds three great missionary religions
A Buddhism
B hinduism
C christianity
D Islam
B
Islamic doctrine denotes Jinn as
Mortal spirits that are neigher human nor angelic in nature
In the buddhas lifetime, the political climate in india could best be described as
The replacement of tribal republics with territorially based kingdoms
Religious taoism differs most from other religions in that
A Makes extensive use of icongoraphy
B is not concerned with life after death
C it involves magical rituals
B
According to the hindu tradition , each of the following is one of the three classical aims in life EXCEPT
A Moksha
B Kama
C bhakti
D artha
C
The belif that there is one high god that ranks above all others is known as
A polytheism
B henotheism
C monotheism
D pantheism
B
The term Torah has evolved to mean in the jewish tradition
The entire hebrew bible and the books of oral law including the talmud
In the buddhist tradition, a bhodisattva may best be described as one who
A has achieved enlightenment, or nirvana
B practices a strict code of asceticism
C can achieve nirvana but chooses not to do so until all other human beings can be saved
D has mastered the Dharma
C
Tribal religions of the native north american pueblo tribes tell of dark underworld below the earth. In contrast to the earth, this underworld is usually depicted as
A the final destination of earthly living beings
B an eminetly sacred realm of unrealized possiblility
C an exile for those mortals who do not observe the proper rituals
D a kingdom ruled by widhed spirits
B
The 18th century development of hasidism by israel ben eliezer (the baal shem tov) could best be sescibed a s ______ movement withing Judaism
A populist
B conservative
C mystical
D elitist
A
Nearly all forms of Buddhism involve the aim of
A attainment of a perfect love
B cultivatiing a spiritually rewarding life
C performing god deeds to ensure a blissful afterlife
D creating conditions favorable to personal meditation or spiritual development
D
The liturgical year for christians begins with
A christmas
B lent
C the feast of the immaculate conception
D Advent
D
A philosophical argument for the existence of god which is based on evidence of a divine plan is described as
A epistolary
B ontological
C teleological
D episcopal
C
The first of the five pillars of Islam (iman) is
A ritual prayer
B alsmgiving
C the profession of faith
D the Ramadan fast
C
Most historians belive the most likely reason fo rthe Byzantine empoeror constantines patronage of christianity is
A his anger at the widespread persecution of christians
B his recognition of the political stability offered by the churchs existing hierarchy
C the pressures of his family and relations
D a revelatory vision of the cross in the heavens
B
The collapse of jerusalem in 70CE marked the begining of the
A diaspora
B rabbinic jewish tradition
C reform movement in Judaism
D Spread of Christianity into Europe
B
Each of the following was a medieval mendicant order which developed in the thirteenth centurey as a monastic response to the growing wwealth of worldliness of the christian church Except
A benedictined
B Carmelites
C dominicans
D franciscans
A
The emphasis on Bhakti or devotion in the Hindu tradition emerged in medieval times in the
A Aryan culture of the Indus Valley
B non aryan culture of the indus valley
C dravidian clulture of southern India
D blending of Hindu and muslim cultures in northwestern India
C
Of the following religions which can most defensibly be claimed as having its origins rooted in sociological concerns
A taoism
B islam
C judaism
D confucianism
D
The earliset body of jewish biblical interpretation, developed in the period after 70ce is known as the
A talmud
B midrash
C septuagint
D mishnah
B
The council of Chalcedon which effectively established the Eastern orthodox tradiation of christianity held that jesus was
A two seperate persons , one divine and one human
B a single person with only a divine nature
C a single person with both a divine nature and a human nature
C
Which of the following hindu deities has become the focus of a doctrine of consecutive incarnations
A Vishnu
B Brahman
C Shiva
D Parvati
A
The historical interaction between Taoism an dConfucianism is best Illustrated by the
A development of alchemical Confucian sects
B more advanced Taoist doctrines of spirituality
C beliefs of Mencius on the state of human nature
D incorportation of ethical behaviour into taoist paractices
D
Despite its relative decline int he world, Buddhism has endured in china and Asia largely as a result of
A its interdependence with emerging political ideologies
B the attractiveness of its conservative traditions
C itsn nely discovered popularity in the west
D its openess to acculturation
D
The neo confucian movement was begun in China largely as a response to
A A renaissance of superstitous pagan rituals
B the increasing influence of buddhism and taoist religion
C a collectivist political movement
D the rebellious doctrines of Mohism
B
Which of the forur christian gospels most strenously advances the declaration of Christ as messiah and Saviour
A mark
B luke
C matthew
D John
D
The actual teachings of Confucius are probobly best observed in the
A shih ching
B I ching
C analects
D tao te ching
C
The islamic tradition states that the first prophet to erect a shrine in the valley of mecca was
A Ishmael
B isaac
C abraham
D muhammad
C
Which of the following statements about the concepts of jen and li in confucian thought are True
A Li is concerned primarily with a persons inner orientation
BJen is related primarily to social behavior
C Li has a clearere association with the concept of loyalty
D Jen was expected primarily of nobels in their dealings with inferiours
A & B
In the five books of moses, Gods selection of unlikely figures like David and Deborah as instuments of divine will is interpreted by jews as an illustration of God's
A random selection of process
B absolute control over history
C indeifference to social status
D love for the weak and uninitiated
B
The majority of religions account for their origins in ______ terms.
A sociological
B psychological
C anthropological
D theological
D
The destruction of solomons temple eventually influenced many changes in the nature of Judaism. Which of the following was NOt one of these
A a generalized transition to an urban, rather than a agricultural lifestyle
B a proliferation of reforms movements throughout the dispersed peoples
C the replacement of the hebrew language with vernacular Aramaic
D the development of the synagogue as an institution
B
Among native american cultures of the plains regious, religions gnerally involve numerous differentiated spiritss which can be described in each of the following ways EXCEPT they are
A considered synonymous with qualities that can be transformed to other beings or inanimate forms
B specific to each part othe natural world
C significantions of specific tribal ancestors
D associated with an animating life principle
C
In the teravada Buddhist View, Monks and nuns occupied a noble position among the community, and belonged to a special group who had entered one of the four stages of the supraworldly path
Which of the following was not one of these for classes of nobility
A bodhisattvas, who would be reborn no more than five times
B once-returners, who would be reborn no more than once
C non-returners, who would not be reborn again
D arhants, who had achived nirvana
A
To ousiders the aspect of certain religions that has historically been most threatening and offendive has been the
A utter lack of empirical evidence for their belifs
B gradual gentrification of the priestly class
CMeans by which their adherents have attempted to propagate their belifs
D iconography associated with worship
C
What is the termafor the sectarian Hindu practice whose aim is to awaken the power of the Goddess and uniting it with Purusa, the male supreme being
A Raja yoga
B Kundalini Yoga
C Hatha yoga
D Bhakti yoga
B
What is the term for the Catholic doctine that the bread and wine of the Eucharist are at the moment of consecration in the service miraculously transformed into the ody and blood of Christ
A transsubstantiation
B transmogrification
C transfiguration
D investiture
A
According to the qur'an and Islamic tradition, gods role in human history
A is that of a merciful creator who has sent his messages through the one true prophet
BIs conducted through mortal prophets and messengers who convey his will
C prescribes a preordained destiny for each person on earth
D is played directly, through self disclosure, incarnation, and divine punishments
B
Which of the following religions is probobly the Weakest example of religious syncretism
A Voodoo of the caribbean
B the Umbanda of Brazil
C the New age movement of North America
D The cargo cults of Melanesia
D
The texts that later became the basis for Modern Hindu laws, composed in the first centuries of the CE, are the
A Klpas
B dharmasastras
C Upanishads
D puranas
B
A philosophical argument that finds proof of gods edxistence implied in the idea of god itself is described as
A teleological
B cosmological
C ontological
D theological
C
Each of th efollowing is considered one of the five major prophets in the islamic tradition EXCEPT
A moses
B Abraham
C Jesus
D David
D
The holiday of Shavouth, celebrated in late spring is historically interpreted by rabbinic judaism to be a commemoration of the
A giving of the torah on mount sinai
B victories over the Canaanites
C victims of the Holocaust of World War II
D second Exile
A
Which of the surviving Hindu Schools of philosophy focuses on the performance of rituals
A Mimamsa
B Yoga
C Vedanta
D Vaisesika
A
The principal figure to shape the direction of the early christian church was
A luke
B john the baptist
C peter
D paul
D
Religious scholars would most likely agree that the emperor Asoka's role inthe history of Buddhism could most closely be compared with that of ___ in christianity
A. Constantine
B Herod
C Martin Luther
D St Thomas Aquinas
A
Which f th efollowing best describes confucius's understanding of Heaven
A A supernatural realm inhabited by the departed sould of ancestors
B a higher power, order, and law that displaced the patterns of former gods
C the basis of all change in the world
D a way station in which the sould of the departed would lie in wait for ultimate judgment
B
Which of the following historical events forever changed the muslim faith by making inevitable the formation of the shi'i tradition of Islam
A expulsion of Jews from medina
B abbasid revolution
C appointment of ali as fourth caliph
D murder of muhammads, grandson, husayn, at karbala
D
Reform judaism arose in
A medieval Europe as a planned comromise to accomodate growing mystical sects
B twentieth century North America with the belief that Jewish life should parallel that of modern american society
C post-WWII Israeli society to accommodate the influx of various cultures
D eighteenth century europe with the belief that Jewish life should parallel that of modern european society
D
Shaktism, the Hindu worship of the great goddess, developed in India out of th elong interacton with
A the building of temples to vishnu
B the practice of kundalini yoga
C the worship of shiva
D early vedic brahmins
C
Each of the following was a vactor that led to the initial decline of Buddhism in india Except the
A popularity of the Brahmanic Hindu tradition
B isolation and self sufficiency of monasteries
C invasion of Muslim conquerors
D official persecution of Buddhists by the Chinese
D
Proponents of psychological theories concerning the origin of religion hold religion to be the result of an
A ad hoc series of affective responses to emerging patterns on the external evironment
B series of cognitive attempts to explain and adjust to one's external environment
C set of conditioned responses to the periods of extreme distress or despair
D world view obscured by childhood events
B
The term qiblah, in the islamic tradition means
A the annual pilgrimage to Mecca
B the ruling issued by a traditional religio legal authority
c the direction of mecca, faced during prayer
C
The confucian concept of te, or virtue is best understood as
A the essence of the Tao, passed on to rules from heaven
B a behavior driven by the compassion of one common being to another
C a sacred power inherent in the very presence of the philopopher king
D an ideal unattainable by all but the emperor
C
The historical event of profoundest significance for Christians is the
A birth of Jesus
B suffereing and death of jesus on the cross
C miracle of the loaves and fishes
D sermon on the mount
B
The idea of Chung in Confucian thought signifies loyalty primarily to ones
A family
B political allies
C own heart and conscience
D lover and mate
C
In buddhism, karma can best be described as the principle of
A moral causality
B the primary goal of the eightfold path
C self reliance
D renunciation of th eworldly pleasures
A
Which of the following biblical figures finally led the Hebrews into the land of Canaan
A Jacob
B Joshua
C Moses
D David
B
Most students of religion would agree that the Hindu principle of bhakti has its counterpart in the Muslim tradition of
A sunnism
B sufism
C sevener or Isma'ili shi'ism
B
The emergence of the vaisnava tradition in Hinduism centered on which of the following developments Except
A the special responses of certain krishna worshippers to the presssures and needs that arose in later historical periods
B the proliferation of tantric sects
C the gathering of sympathetic groups around the original users of the hagavad Gita
The religious life of a tribal people the satvatas
B
of the following chinese religious philopophers which was follower of the neo -confucian schol of thought
A hsun-tzu
B kao-Tsu
C mencius
D chang Tsai
d
Whichof the following were reasons why the teaching of muhammad were initially rejected by members of his community EXCEPT
A His teaching s undermined the authority of the merchants and political leaders
B they shamed the tribal ancestors
C they slighted the teachings of Abraham
D they contested the sacredness of the tribal ties
C
The 20th century movement to reunite previously seperated or alientated brancehes of Christianity is known as
A Catechism
B unitarianism
C ecumenism
D congregationalism
C
The purpose of the puranas in Hinduism is to
A provoke philosophical discussions about the principles of faith
B articulate the three ways to liberation from the cyle of rebirths and deaths
C praise deities that have become important in the Hindu pantheon
D spell out the karma yoga
C
The development of Confucianism is probobly best descrived as a religion that grew primarily out of _______ concerns
A economic
B sociological
C spiritual
D psychological
B
The Buddha was able to establish close ties with lay supporters and thereby strengthen his religion, primarily because
A of his personal charisma
B the wealth of his family prevented his having to beg from the common people
C he insisted on spending the rainy seasos in settlement with the lay community
D he was able to enforce strict standards of conduct among his followers
C
The practice of baptizing infants and young children into the christian faith became the normal practice for Christians in about
A 50 in accordance with pauls wishes
b 250 ce as a zealous rebellioun abainst roman persecution
C 330 ce after the patronage of constantine eliminated the person risk associated with the rite
D 1565 in accordance with the council of trent
C
In abrahams covenant with god, what is promised abraham and his people in return for the performance of their moral duties
A a decisive victory over their enemies
B the lands of canaan
C an end to famine
D unending prosperity
B
The central rite of Christianity, which recalls or reenacts the self sacrificing death of Jesus is
A the passsion
B confirmation
C the eucharist
C
Classical islamic tradition assers that a persons station in paradise will be determined by the the
A number of pilgrimages undertaken in his or her life
B number of verses of the Qur'an he or she has memorized in his or her life
C number of converts he or she has influenced in his or her life
B
In traditional pre-confucian Chinese society, most people recieved their sense of comfort and well being along with their fear of shame and dishonor from
A the extensive dogma of ancient and medieval religions
B their sense of knowing the Tao
C their strong sense of living in a large powerful family group
D their apprehension of a personal god
C
Which of the following is not one of the four noble truths proclaimed by the Buddha
A all existence is suffering
B all suffering is caused by sins commited against others
C all suffering can be overcome
D the way to overcome suffering is by following the eighforld path
B
The medieval christian theologian who is thoght to have been the most influential on the development of the faith was
A st Augustine
B Erasmus
C St Francis
D St Anselm
A
The main difference between the atharvaveda andd the other three hindu vedas is that it
A is probobly not of Aryan origin
B ends with the Upanishads
C was composed between 1500 BC and 600BCE
D is meant to be sung
A
In the jewish lunar calendar, each year begins with a new moon at around the time of the fall equinox and is celebrated with the festival of
A rosh Hashanah
B Purim
C Passover
D Sukkoth
A
As the Islamic tradition grew, the arabic term sunnah came to denote
A any orthodox follower of Islam
B the example established by Muhammad
C the pratices of tribal ancesty
D the essential truth of the Qur'an
B
Confucius saw the answer to the contemporary problems in the ritualization of life, which was found in the practice of
A Li
B Ch'i
C Chun
D Jen
A
The three main establishments to emerge from the protestant reformation in sixteenth century europe include each of the following except
a anglicans
B deists
C calfvinists
D lutherans
B
According to the eistential philopher Fredrich Nietsche, religion is a
A means by which common people attempt to escape the ordinariness of their lives
B harmful remnant of the irrational elements of human beings
C attempt to explain the continuities between magic and science
D expression of faith that is beyond all rationality and transcends all philosophical expectations
B
The practice of Hijab or veiling of women which is still practiced in some segments of islamic society was most likely initiated under the influence of
A the dictates of the early caliphs
B the natural environment
C the Qur'an
D Eastern christians or ancent greek usage
D
Among the native Inuit peoples of the Arctic, the tradition custom of keeping the skins of birds and animals that had been killed for food revlects the belief that a
A Their residual spirituality would help th eshaman achive an ecstatic trance
B the creatures sould might eventually retun to inhabit them
C it was wicked to waste material that had once contained life
B
The use of the halo in christian icongraphy is traced back to the artistic traditions of th e
A copts
B presbyterians
C Hebrews
D Byzantines
D
The neo confucianist who most clearly stressed the experience of enlightenment was the philosopher
A chu Hsu
B chou tun yi
C Wang Yan Ming
C
The paritta ceremonies sponsered by some member s of the laity of Theravada buddhism were intended to
A beckon to the spirit of Maitreya
B produce the magical power that would assure the wee being of the ceremonys sponsor
C strengthen the resolve of participants to avoid self indulgence
D recruit the patronage of new members
B
Each of th efollowing is a standard sacrament associated with the cathoci church except
A Assumption
B marriage
C ordinatio
A
Physical anthroplogists generally characterize religion as a
A complex series of adaptive social mechanisms that developed as people struggled for survival
B mans of providing the social order required fo rpeople to live and workd together
C prerational mode of conciousness
D result of the gradually increasing importance of certain objects to human survival
A
Which of the following best states the distinction between a Prophet and a messenger in the Islamic tradition
A prophet
A is considered to be a divine incarnation of god
B conveys a message that is limited to a specific people an dfo ra particular time
C is sent by god with a universally binding savred law
D has physically heard the word of god
B
Which of th efollowing best describs the concept of Dharma that arose during th eearly development of the buddhist religion
A a principle of causality
B ones social and moral obligations
C a set of eternal truths
D a means of attaining nirvana
C
To confucius the individual effort required in the proper perfrmance of on'e duty was denoted by the term
A jen
B te
C wen
D chun
A
Abrahams contribution to the tradition of Islam was that he
A was willing to sacrifice his own son in submission to god
B healed the sick and fed the hungry
C warned against the falseness of idol worship
introduced the concept of holy
C
Today the basic forms of most religious studies are
A symbolic
B pictographic
C linguistic or textual
d philosphical or theological
c
The first real muslim community was founded by muhammad in
A jiddah
B medina
C mina
D mecca
B
Among many african tribal religions as in the dogon culture of west africa, rites and sacrifices are a means of
A restoring order
B praising particular gods
C reinforcing familial bonds
D insuring material success
A
The christian ritual in which an individual is admitted into participation in the community is
A penance
B baptism
C confirmation
D communion
B
Muslim scholars studying fiqh generally seek to understand the
A Qur'an's stanceon the doctrine of jihad
B rights and obligations of human beings according to God
C sources of Islamic law
D key elements of the coming revelation
B
According to Karl Marx, religion is an
A tool used by the poor to justify resentment and possibly rebellion against the ruling class
B set of superstitions that imepede the individual from achieving his or her full potential
C futile attempt to symbolically elevate the Status and aspirations of humankind
D illusory value system used to legitimize the oppression of the poor
D
The Qur'an's characteristic use of prnouns in which we address you is indicative of the
A great number of people who were involved in transcribing it
B dichotomy that seperates god and humans
C all pervading nature of the one god
D prophets role as transmitter of revelation
D
Theology is probobly best defined as the
A use of reason and argument in seeking the truth and knowlege of the nature of things and the priciples governing existence
B branch of speculative inquiry that deals with such concepts as being knowing cause substance and identity
C formal systematic attempt to give a rational explantion if a religions teachings
D explanation of religions by the purposes they serve rather than by theoretical causes
C
During the early development of Confucianism, the age of the hundred philopophers or the sixth century bce in china the philosopicl speculations of scholars and teachers tended to be
A radical and anti establishment
B conservative, yet optimistic
C focused almost exclusively on belief rather than ritual
D pantheistic
B
Many of th eobservances associated with the muslim ritual pilgrimage or Hajj, performed in the twelfth month o fthe Islamic calendar are performed largely to commemorate
A the generalized practice of almsgiving
B certain aspects of abrahams life
C the birth of Muhammad
D teh fall of Mecca
B