Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Rene Descartes 1596-1650
First Modern Philosopher, discounted all elements of religion, Intellectual analysis should follow decompositional pathways.
Immanuel Kant 1724-1804
Believed in natural or received religion, "that without which it would not be what it is",
Karl Marx 1818-1883
Religion is the opiate of the people. Religion is the protest of dehumanizing conditions that keep us in social/political bondage.
Emile Durkeim 1858-1917
As man's intelligence grows, religion becomes more detailed/complicated.
Sigmund Freud 1856-1939
Religion is mere illusion, produced to fulfill a wish that is made of weakness and helplessness
Carl Jung 1875-1961
Mythical figures are the same throughout all cultures because human conciousness is the same all over.
Claude Levi-Strauss 1908-
Myths relfect everyday life. Believes cosmology(mythology) is true.
Class Definition of Religion:
Faith that a common set of norms, rituals, and myths will enable one to transcend death.
4 types of religion:
Church, Denomination, Sect, Cult
Official Religion of a country or state
one of many major societal religions of a country or state
Small, anti-social religion with a closed membership
Small, anti-social religion with a closed membership and a charasmatic leader. (does not last longer than the life of the leader)
Compelling gods/spirits to do one's will through rituals
230,000-30,00 years ago. Graves proved early evidence of religion, which still goes on today. Considered the bear sacred. Idea of "holy" became part of every religion
Burried their dead with ornaments, which still goes on today. Deceased were painted red(life blood). Many survivors returned for a feast with the dead.
People who are attuned with the spirits of animals and people, and deal with this world on behalf of others. Priests and ministers are modern day shamans
Divine Fertility
Idea of a fruit-bearing mother with exagerated female attributes. Women are at the base of totems in ancient cultures
Pantheon of Gods
The idea that there are hiearchal systems of gods. Ishtar was the closest thing to a universal deity.
Creation stories
Sumerians belived in a primordial sea, then land and air were created. There are many accounts a world wide flood.
Divination and Astrology
Omens were read through the divination of objects' actions. Mayans used astrology to make calenders. Astrology is the reading of heavenly bodies.
Tocobaga: 3 souls
shadow, reflection in a pond, and the pupil or their eye
Shadow soul, and image in a pond soul
These souls departed the body and went into a weaker creature
pupil of their eye soul
this part remained in the body so Indians could ask advice from it.