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25 Cards in this Set

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Taoism
refers to both a philosophy and a religion. Advocates life of natural simplicity. Originated in China. Taoism has also contributed to medicine and martial arts making it hard to give an exact definition of the term.
Lao-tzu
(old master)Historical info on Lao-tzu is scarce and scholars do not even agree on whether he was an actual historic person
Tao-also translated as the "Way"
it describes both the unchanging first principle by which all things came to be, as well as the ideal naturalness that should govern human affairs. The tao defies exact definition.
Wu-wei
"non-action." Tao-te ching describes this as the path of least resistance-the path of natural simplicity that is in accordance with the Tao. Wu-wei does not signify the abscence of actions, but rather, acting without artificiality of overaction.
Tao-te ching is divided into 2 sections.
While the 1st part is more concerned with the general theory of the Tao, the 2nd part is more concerned with te, or the power by which the universal Tao becomes particular in the world. The 2nd part focuses on te, This section particularly discusses the role of the Tao in political life.
Chuang-tzu
written in 3rd or 4th century BCE. It describes the mystical aspects of Taoism-the transcendence of the distinctions between one's self and the universe.
Taoist canon
is collection of >1,000 volumes compiled over 15 centuries. The texts are organized according to the Three Caverns-a tripartite division that arose in the 5th century
Three Caverns
taoist canon named "cavern" because the principle texts were allegedly discovered by hermits in caves
Elixir of immortality
The taoist religion was known for its alchemical experminents in which it tried to create an elixer of immortality.There attempts in doint this has helped to further the field of scientific expermintation
Ch'i-kung exercises
are part of what taoist consider inner alchemy-a cleansing of the physical body. it is breathing exercise in hopes of connecting their body with the gods, thereby ridding themselves of evil toxins.
Two taoist sects surviving today
1) Heavenly Masters
2) Perfect Truth
Perfect Truth
sect developed in 13th century, noted for its fasting and devoted pursuit of inner alchemy and meditation. this sect shows the greatest Buddhist influence.
Neo-Taoism
made up of several sects/schools. It is a multifaceted movement that transformed Taoism in the 3rd to 6th centuries, when China was in political and cultural turmoil
Heavenly Mastrs
Chaung Ling founded the Heavenly Masters sect after claiming the Lao-tzu appeared to him in a cave in 142 and making him the Heavenly Master. The formal beginning of Taoist religion is often identified with the founding of the Heavenly Masters sect in the 2nd century- a sect found under Chang Ling
The Classic of the Great Peace
taoism offers a doctrine of salvation, looking forward to a future epoch where a divine man will restore peace to the world. It is considered to be the most important text of religious Taoism after Tao-te Ching
Korea
is the country with the strongest aoist following besides China. Taoism was imported into Korea in 7th century. Since then it has shown itself resilient, even while other religions-like Buddhism-has lessened in influence
Sacred
is experienced through the fear or awe one feels in the presence of a spirit or a god. It is the experience of the sacred that 1st awakens reverential awe. A prerequisite to religion.
Mana
an unseen, invisible, mysterious force that causes nature to act as it does which was recognized by the Melanesian people. Belief in mana is what Bishop Cordington believed was humans original impetus to adopt religion.
Confucianism
very doctrinal religion, relied heavily on ritual. For ex. the ancestoe cult required that one make regular offerings to ones family
Sacred kingship
a notion found in many ancient cultures where rulers were regardedas gods or representatives of gods. Sacred kingship explains why so many taboos surrounded ancient rulers, often preventing contact with them
18th century German philosopher Immanuel Kant
argues that religious affirmations are unprovable and it's the operation of the moral will-not cognitive reason-that makes people religious.
19th century Max Muller
stated that religion developed as "primitive" people observe the patterns of nature and try to personalize them. It was similiar to the animistic theory.
Sir James George Frazer
wrote The Golden Bough- argued that religion began as a way to control nature through magic. Frazers magic theory identifies a belief in magic as a step in evolution of the human mind. The highly evolver person, Frazer argues will turn away from magic and religion and embrace science.
Karl Marx
viewed religion as a man made construct meant to soothe the difficulties of living in a class society. His famous quote is, "It (religion) is the opium of the people."
Sigmund Freud- 20th century
psychoanalytic approach said religion originated as guilt that men felt in hating their fathers. Sited the myth of Oedipus and totemic religions as distinctive examples of the developement.