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94 Cards in this Set

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Chuang Tzu/ Zhuangzi
- highest disciple of Laozi 399-295 BCE
- He was married and held a minor admin-istrative post.
- Author of the Zhuangzi
-
Themes of Zhuangzi
1. Same view of the Dao and the De as the Laozi.
2. Greater importance given to wu-wei, the relativity of all opposites, the identity of life and death, the importance of meditation, becoming one with the Dao, and nature understood as a never-ending transformation of appearances.
3. Highly critical of Confucian thought.
Wu-wei
Going with the flow and rhythms of the Dao, not striving or working against the nature of the Dao. It is letting things take their natural course in their own time One should yield to nature or follow nature and not the dictates of society; one should practice non-artificiality. Thus one should take no action against nature nor interfere with natural ways.

- wu wei—“actionless action,” or taking no
intentional or invasive action contrary to the natural flow of things. Wu wei is spontaneous, creative activity proceeding from the Dao, action without ego-assertion, letting the Dao take its course.
Laozi
(600-500? BCE) Master Lao” or “Old Master. he was attributed as writing the Dao Scriptures. But scholars do not really believe that he wrote the scriptures. In fact there is no evidence that he even existed.
The composition of the Tao Te Ching
According to tradition, the book was written for a border guard by Laozi (Lao-tzu) , a curator of the royal library of the Zhou dynasty, when he left society for the mountains at the reported age of 1 60. The guard had recognized Laozi as a sage and begged him to leave behind a record of his wisdom. Laozi reportedly complied by inscribing the 5,000 words now known as the Dao de jing. This is traditionally said to have happened during the sixth century BCE, with Laozi somewhat older than Confucius.
Ren
- It is one of the five cardinal virtues.
- the ideal relationship between two or more people.
- Confucius describes the rare person who is utterly devoted to ren as one who is not motivated by personal profit but by what is moral, is concerned with self-improvement rather than public recognition, is ever mindful of parents, speaks cautiously but acts quickly, and regards human nature as basically good.
Lee
lit. "rite", rituals and ceremonies, the religious and moral way of acting, decorum, and propriety). Lee includes everything from courtesy and reverence to ritual observances and the due order of public ceremonies to the ideal standards of social and religious conduct. It is the spirit of lee that counts, not merely following the letter of the formal practice.
- sacred rituals of ancestor worship
- understanding the situation you are in and acting to never cause offense
What is the Junzi/Chun Tsu
Could be translated: “the gentleman,” “the superior person,” “the noble person,” “the true human being, “the mature person,” or “humanity-at-its-best.”
- 1. The superior person acts before he speaks and then speaks according to his action.
2. The superior person is broadminded but not partisan; the inferior person is partisan but not broadminded.
3. The superior person understands the higher things [moral principles]; the inferior person understands the lower things [profit].
What is the Junzi cont.
4. The superior person understands righteousness (yi); the inferior person understands profit. (Analects 4:16)
5. The superior person is ashamed that his words exceed his deeds.
6. The superior person thinks of virtue; the inferior person thinks of possessions. The superior person thinks of sanctions; the inferior person thinks of personal favors.
Short Confucius Bio
• Spoken of as the first teacher
• Claimed to be no more than a lover of the ancients.
• His father died before he was three. His mother raised him and they were poor. The hardship of poverty of these early years gave him a tie with the common people, which was to be reflected in the demonstrative tenor of his entire philosophy.
• His goals for public office because he thought that his theory would not work unless he had a way to show the people. Never got in office because the ruler was intimidated by him.
Short Confucius Bio Cont.
• At 50s he gave 13 years of his life in which he wandered from state to state proffering unsolicited advice to rulers on how to improve their governing and seek a real opportunity to put his ideas into practice. However the opportunity never appeared.
• He was mocked by many. After the administration changed in his own state he was invited to return and once he was there he realized he was too old to hold an office so he spent the last five years quietly teaching and editing the class of China's past at age 72 he died.
What is the difficulty with the name Confucius?
its actually the western way of saying his name. they call him Kong Fu Tsu and this means Great Master Kong
Analects/ Lun Yu
Sayings of Confucius and his disciples, 1st cent. CE
Mencius/ Mengzi
what does Mengzi mean?
- He was a couple centuries after Confucius. he was like the st. paul. he was the great disciple and teacher of confucianism.
- He was the "second sage"
What was Mencius' major addition to Confucian tradition
Mengzi’s major addition to the Confucian tradition was his belief in the inherent
goodness of human nature
DAO
The way of the universe, of nature; the driving force and power behind the rhythms of nature
TAI CHI
The Tai Chi is what we call the yin and the yang. It comes from a word meaning ridge beam which holds up the roof. it is another word for ultimate reality. The Tai Chi is made up of the yin and the yang
TIAN
- In early Chinese usage (Chou period) it referred to a supreme being, in later usage it referred to an impersonal, abstract conception of deity
- For the Confucianist: the way that we should behave under heaven. it is the ultimate reality
For the Taoist: it means heaven.
- not personal creator but a force of the way things are.
Wu-Lun
It is the five great relationships:
1. Kindness (ren) in the father, filial piety (xiao) in the son.
2. Gentility (ren) in the eldest brother, humility and respect in the younger.
3. Righteous behavior (yi) in the husband, obedience in the wife.
4. Humane consideration (ren) in elders, deference in juniors.
5. Benevolence (ren) in rulers, loyalty in ministers and subjects.
Shang Di/ Shang Dee
A god that was very personal. was called the ancestor on high the ancestor of heaven. not the creator of the world but the ruler of the world. This word was later replaced with Tian.
yi
righteousness
Wu Jing
The five classics

While Confucius did not author Chinese culture or the classics, he was its supreme editor. Four of the five classics were destroyed during the Chin Dynasty (221-206 BCE) and were reconstructed in the Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE).

1. The Book of History (Shu Jing)
2. The Book of Songs (Shir Jing / Shi-ching): 305 songs.
3. The Book of Rites (Li Jing, also called Li Chi)
4. The Book of Changes (Yi Jing / I Ching), survived the burning of the books in 213 BCE
5. The Annals of Spring and Autumn (Chun Qui / Ch’un-ch’iu)
Wen
A confucian principle
The cultivation of "the arts of peace" (the fine arts, music, poetry) over "the arts of war".
Xiao / Hsiao
it is a confucian principle
- Filial Piety: Love of parents, loyalty to parents, family, including all relatives, both living and dead. By extension, it is also applied to one’s elders, to noted scholars, and to one’s teachers.
I Ching/ Yijing
- it is one system of divination
- It is a common source for both
Daoism and Confucianism and is regarded as a classic text in both traditions.
- It is one of the five classics
How do you translate Dao De Jing?
Dao: Way
De: Power
Jing: book or classic

The book of the way and its power
What is the Dao De Jing/ Tao Te Ching?
Main text of Daoism, written down c. 300 BCE. Contains 81 short and enigmatic chapters.
Orthodoxy
Gk., orthodoxos, lit. “right belief”):
That which is considered to be right or correct belief; especially as defined by religious authorities.
- emphasis is believing the right thing more than doing what is right.
Orthopraxy
(Gk., orthopraxis, lit. “right practice”):
Right practice and actions over belief.
Ali
Cousin of Muhammad. He was a possible successor of Muhammad after his death.
He was married to Muhammad's favorite daughter Fatima. The fourth caliph was ’Ali, the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law. He was reportedly known for his holy and chivalrous qualities, but the dynasty of Umayyads never accepted him as their leader, and he was assassinated by a fanatic who was a former member of his own party.
Allah
Al- the lah- means god
- There is one and only one god. utterly beyond comprehension.
Allah-u-Akbar
it is the first line of the salat (daily obligatory prayer). it means god is greater.
Arkan ad-Din
this is the five pillars that support the religion of Islam. this is something all pious muslims will follow. At the age of maturity is the age you would take the five pillars. (15)
1. Shahadah
2. Salat
3. Zakat
4. Sawm
5. Hajj
Shahada
the act of witnessing or attesting to the formula or creed (ar. Kalima) Kalima- There is no god but God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God

It is sometimes held that a single uttering of the shahadah is sufficient in order to be saved. In this sense it is equivalent to the Christian practice of “witnessing” to the saving grace of Christ and taking the Lord as your savior.
Salat
literally means prayer. Muslims are expected to pray five times a day. at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, and late evening. Before each prayer a Muslim performs wodu, ablutions, the ritual washing of the face, hands and feet. This outward cleanliness is also symbolic of the inner purification produced by the prayers themselves.
zakat
means purification. All Muslims are required to give part of their wealth for those in need and to further the cause of Islam (almsgiving). It is a mandatory minimum tax (2.5% of your total income) on various categories of wealth gathered and dispensed under the auspices of the Islamic state.
Sawm
"fasting"): All Muslims are expected to abstain from food, drink, smoking, and sexual relations during the daylight hours of the entire month of Ramadan.
Hajj
("pilgrimage"): All Muslim who are financially able are required to make a pilgrimage to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina once during their lifetime
Shari'ah
it is the sacred law of islam.
- The Shari’ah is based chiefly on the Qur’an and Sunnah of Muhammad
- The Shari’ah specifies patterns for worship (the Five Pillars of Islam) as well as detailed prescriptions for social conduct, to bring remembrance of God into every aspect of daily life and practical ethics into the fabric of society
Ramadan
Ramadan commemorates the month when Muhammad first began to receive revelation from Allah. Three days of celebration follow this month of fasting.
Muslim
it means one who submits to the will of God
Muhammad
Name means highly praised. born around 570-571 dies at 75. by the time of his death he was the religious and political leader of all of arabia. he was illiterate and one of the back water people of the roman empire and then ended up leading the arabs from being barbarians to being the cultural and military force of the next millennium
Meccca
now the spiritual center for all Muslims. was a trading city. it provided a connection with africa. Arabs in Mecca would take their camels up the silk road into China.
Medina
the community to where the muslims moved to when they were being persecuted they went there because they were invited by the Jews.
Nabi
Nabi means prophet. it is one who prophesies within an existing religion.
Rasul
Means messenger or envoy. it is one who brings a new revelation, often in the form of new scripture and new laws
qur'an
literally means recital or reading.
The single most important volume in Islam, considered the pinnacle of Arabic literature. It constitutes the smallest basic scripture of any great religion, about two thirds the size of the New Testament, but it is considered the best authenticated.
Revelation was memorized immediately and was also written down on scraps of leather, flat camel bones, potsherds, palm leaves, parchment and even stones. The pre-Islamic Arabs were, for the most part, illiterate and memorizing was advanced to a high degree.
4. Abu-Bukr, the first caliph (temporal ruler) began compiling the suras of the Qur'an immediately after the death of Muhammad (632 C.E.). His compilation was completed two years later under the supervision of Zaid-bin-Sabit, Muhammad's secretary.
5. The first official version of the Qur'an was complete in 652 C.E. by Caliph Uthman, only 20 years after the death of Muhammad! Uthman ordered all other Qur'ans which existed at that time to be destroyed.
when was the qur'an revealed?
between 610 and 632 CE
tanzil
direct revelation from God
how many suras does the quran have?
114
BISMALLAH
“In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.”
In Arabic: Bismi-llahi-r-Rahmani-r-Rahim

The Bismallah precedes ever surah or chapter of the Qur’an except the ninth. It is often used in architectural and manuscript ornamentation.

Devoted Muslims speak it many times a day, especially as a consecration before undertaking any religious or lawful action. It is also spoken before meals and is thus equivalent to saying grace.
At Tawhid
the unity surah
The central concept around which all Qur'anic, and for that matter, all Islamic teachings revolve, is the absolute unity or oneness of God. God, is an utterly unique, absolute Reality, with no peer or likeness.
surah
it is the chapters of the quran. there are 114
hadith
a book composed of the teachings and sayings of Muhammad
jihad
Translated struggle, striving or effort.
There are two types of Jihad. the greater jihad and the lesser jihad.
The Greater Jihad
the personal struggle over one's lower nature, ego, selfishness, etc. the inner battle we must all fight
The Lesser Jihad
the armed struggle to establish, consolidate, and protect the ummah, or Muslim community. The Lesser Jihad is not emphasized in the Qur'an. Jihad was never meant as an offensive struggle as this verse from the Qur'an indicates:

a. "And fight for the cause of God against those who fight against you: but commit not the injustice of attacking them first: God loveth not such injustice . . . (Qur’an 2:190).
Islam
(Ar., "submission"): The peace and tranquility that results from submitting one's will to the will of Allah.

Islam does not advocate violence. It has a morally justified “just war theory” as does Christianity.
Islamism
as a mostly political movement (founder is Sayeed Kutub).
2. Islamism may advocate violence and terrorism.
What are the two major human sins?
Shirk and Kufir
Shirk
(Ar. lit. “association”): associating anything else with divinity except the one God. Considered the fundamental error at the root of all sin or transgression.
Kufir
(Ar. lit. “covering,” or “hiding” and by extension, “disbelief”): Unbelief in God, atheism, active denial of God, even ungrate- fulness to God.
Tanzih
Ar. tanzih, “elimination” of all anthropomorphic traits
Eliminate all notions that would think of god like a big human being in the sky. or even comparing god to a human being. this is one of the greatest sins.
Kaaba
Abraham and Isma’il together built the holiest sanctuary in Islam, the Ka’bah. It was thought to be the site of Adam’s original place of worship; part of the cubic stone building is a venerated black meteorite. According to the Qur’an, God told Abraham that the Ka’bah should be a place of pilgrimage. It was regarded as a holy place by the Arabian tribes.
Hijrah
(migration) of Muslims from Mecca to Medina took place in 622 CE. The Muslim era is calculated from the beginning of the year in which this event took place, for it marked the change from persecution to appreciation of the Prophet’s message.
two branches of islam
sunni and shia
sunni
("the people of the tradition”). The orthodox and powerful majority of Muslims.
2. 83% of all Muslims are Sunnis. They live throughout the Muslim world.
3. Leadership decided by popular consensus of the community. These leaders or heads of state were formerly called Khalifah (Caliph). Generally more democratic. Also has Imams, but they function mainly as prayer leaders.
shia
: “partisan” or "follower" of `Ali and his descendants. Shi'ites feel that they have been persecuted by the Sunnis.
2. 16% of all Muslims are Shi’ites, 90% in Iran, where it is the state religion, 60% in Iraq.
3. Leadership based on descendants of Muhammad called Imams (divinely appointed leader who is best suited for both spiritual and temporal rule). They are believed to receive spiritual guidance and divine inspiration and can act as an intercessor between God and humans. Generally less democratic
Rumi/ Mawlana
he is considered on of the greatest poets of the world (shakespeare of the muslim world)
Rumi simply means where he was from. Muslims call him Mawlana which means teacher. he is famous for creating the whirling dervish order
Sufism
- The mystical or esoteric branch of Islam.
- The word is thought to come from the Arabic word suf (“wool”): the early Sufis wore rough woolen clothing.
- The science of the direct knowledge of God.
- Sufism is an inward path of union with the divine, the great mystery, or as the Sufis often refer to it, “the Friend.”
the bab
(Arabic, "The Gate”) the gate to the promised one
(1819-1850).
- he was the forerunner of Bahaullah he is the promised one of islam and he has come to prepare the way for the one who is greater than himself. He gathers disciples. one of his disciples is a woman.
- He was publicly executed by a 750 man firing squad. Station: Prophet-Herald, ministry from 1844-1850.
BAHÁ'U'LLÁH
founder of Bahai
Ar., "The Glory of God”) (1817-1892).
Died in exile in Akka, Palestine.
Station: Prophet-Founder, ministry from 1863-1892. Baha’i means follower of Baha’u’llah.
Manifestation of God
(Baha'i)
God could never directly communicate with us any more than the sun could approach the earth. we would be consumed. God speaks to us through manifestations. like mirrors. prophets would be the old ways. God manifests itself through these individuals. so god is the sun and the rays are like the holy spirit it hits the perfect mirror (prophets of God) it perfectly reflects God and the image is projected to the imperfect mirror which is the people.
Baha’i
means follower of Baha’u’llah.
progressive revelation
religious truth is relative and progressive. it is progressively unfolding throughout time. just like first grade teacher could only give you certain things because you are not ready for algebra yet. you progressively unfold.
SIKH
One who believes in one God, the ten gurus, their teachings, and the Adi Granth.
guru
meaning one who drives away darkness (gu) and preaches enlightenment (ru). According to Guru Nanak, a guru is a communicator of divine truth and grace invested with the authority to speak God's word
ADI GRANTH
"Original Text"): Also known as the Guru Granth or the Guru Granth Sahib, and the most important volume in Sikhism. It is regarded as the sole repository of spiritual authority (the authority of the Vedas and the Qur'an is rejected).
Furthermore, since it has a status now equal to the Guru (Sikhs regard the Granth as the living presence of the Guru), it is accorded great respect and reverence. It is the only religious scripture in which the compilers deliberately included hymns and poems from other rival religions
Nanak
He was born in the area of northern India called
the Punjab was half-Muslim, half-HinduWhen.
- Nanak was thirty, his life was transformed after immersion in a river, from which it is said he did not emerge for three days. Some people now think he was meditating on the opposite side, but in any case he could not be found until he suddenly appeared in town, radiant. According to one account, he had been taken into the presence of God, who gave him a bowl of milk to drink, saying that it was actually nectar (amrit) which would give him “power of prayer, love of worship, truth and contentment.”
was neither Muslim or Hindu but a follower of God
Nama
means the name. it is the nature of God
1. beyond name and form
2. eternal, unborn, all the omnis
3. cannot dwell on earth
4. gracious and merciful
Khalsa
(Pure Ones) , a community pledged to a spe-
cial code of personal discipline.
Kalsa (“royal domain,” community of the pure), by calling five Sikh soldiers to die for their faith (he named them “the beloved”). He gave the name Singh (“lion”) to baptized members of the Kalsa and charged them to crusade for dharmayudha (“the battle of righteousness”). He then asked “the Beloved” to baptize him into the Kalsa.
Guru Gobind Singh
Launched offensive for the preservation of the faith
Fortified Sikhs with hymns, lost four sons to Aurangzeb.
Founded the Kalsa
5 K's
Instituted by Gobind Singh
1. Kesh (uncut hair & beard)
2. Kirpan (sword)
3. Kara (steel bracelet)
4. Kachh (short pants)
5. Kangh (comb)
exclusivism
Only one religion is true, salvific, or correct.
inclusivism
Religions refer ultimately to the same truth, they all point to Reality.
perspectivism
reality is one the shape with all different sides
SHINTO
“the way of the kami" The ethnic and indigenous religion of Japan. No name for this tradition until the 6th cent. CE when “Shinto” was used to distinguish it from the religion or way of the Buddha
Kami no michi
this is the japanese pronunciation of shinto.
means: the way of the kami
Shimenawa
A rope made of twisted straw and adorned with hanging strips of straw or zigzag paper. Like the torii, it marks off a sacred space
Torii
A distinctive open gate or archway which marks the approach or entrance to the sacred space of a Shinto Shrine
Kami
“sacred,” “divinity,” “spirits,” or “deities”
The word “Kami can be either singular or plural, for the word refers to a single essence manifesting in many places” (Fisher 190). The word does not so much refer to an image or images, but rather to a quality - that which evokes wonder and awe (i.e. “the holy”), mystery, a supernatural presence, or a sense of the sacred.

Kami are “anything whatsoever that is outside the ordinary, that possess superior power or that is awe-inspiring.”
sikhism
looks like a blending of Islam and hinduism. but there is a separate revelation
goal of zen buddhism
to get you past talking about Nirvana. You dont want to talk about it you want to experience it.
A.H.
roughly equivalent to A.D. means after the Hijrah
622 A.D. = 1 A.H.