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66 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
non-violence to all life, a concept found in Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism
A pre-historic people who spoke a proto-Indo-European language. They apparently migrated around 1500 BCE from central Asia and eastern Europe west to become ancestors of the Greeks, Celts, Teutons, and Romans, and east to Persia and India.
Sanskrit for "eternal soul"
Hindu concept of the incarnation of earthly manifestation of a deity
Sanskrit for "Song for the Lord"; a section of the Mahabharata. Regarded by many as the crowning achievement of Hindu literature, synthesizing the major strands within Hindu teaching
Hindu concept of devotional service to a personal God. The spiritual path of devotion is know as _______-yoga
Hindu god of creation

One of three major gods of Hinduism (with Vishnu and Shiva); God of creation, typically portrayed with several heads; husband of Sarasvati and others. Mythical image of impersonal ultimate reality.
In Hinduism, the spiritual oneness of all reality
In the Hindu class system, the highest of the four traditional classes; the "priestly" class
from the Portuguese casta, meaning "race"; used to designate the elaborate, stratified system found in traditional Hindu society

Hindu hierarchical social class distinction on the basis of heredity, ritual, or occupation: Brahmana (braa-h-maan ah) (priests), Kshatriya (ksh-aa-trya) (warrior), Vaishya (vai-shya) (merchants) Shudra (sh-oo-dra) (servant). Outcastes or untouchables have no caste and do the most undesirable work, such as garbage collection.
Sanskrit for "duty" or "the way things are intended to be"; also translated as "law" In Hindu society, "social _______" is determined by caste, whereas "eternal ______" refers to the duty to pursue a path leading to liberation from the cycle of rebirth.
Sanskrit for "goddess." In Hinduism, various are worshipped
a spiritual teacher; in Sikhism, a leader of the religion
Indus Valley Civilization
a sophisticated urban culture that flourished along the banks of the Indus River in South Asia, from about 2500 to 1500 B.C.E.
Sanskrit for "action"; the law that explains human behavior as the chain of causes and effects resulting from desire. According to the religions that originated in South Asia, _____ binds us to the cycle of rebirth
In Hinduism, the path of knowledge
Hindu goddess of death, destruction, and renewal
Hindu god prominent in the Bhagavad Gita. Devotees of Vishnu consider him to be and avatar of Vishnu
"illusion"; the concept in Hinduism that reality as experienced is not true reality and constitutes a veil that must be penetrated
Sanskrit for "liberation"; refers to the South Asian teaching of liberation from the cycle of rebirth
Sanskrit for the "cycle of rebirth."
Sanskrit for "power, energy"; in Hinduism, the active energy of a deity, personified as a goddess.. People who practice this are seeking to identify with this active power and draw upon it for material or spiritual pursuits.
Hindu god of destruction and rejuvenation
The Hindu social category of people outside the caste system, forbidden to marry, eat, or work with higher caste members. Education and reading sacred texts is forbidden. They must live outside villages, work at impure occupations, such as scavenging or funerals. Officially abolished by India's modern constitution, but informally still practiced. Mahatma Gandhi called them harigan, children of God. Increasingly, they are known as dalits, oppressed ones.
Sanskrit for "to sit nearby"; philosophical utterances, collected in a section of the Vedas, that are the basis of later philosophical reflection in Hinduism
Sanskrit for "knowledge"; the sacred writings of the Aryans, deemed canonical by later Hinduism. Basic collections include hymns to the gods, ritual materials and derictions for the sacrifices and invocations for the gods, verses from the Rig-Veda arranged musically, and hymns together with spells and incantations.

The oldest major sacred texts of Hindu beliefs and practices, including the Rig Veda, the Sama Veda, and the Yajur Veda, written in Sanscrit, later supplemented by other texts. The Vedas are believed to be the eternal, authoritative instructions of the divine, heard by ancient priestly seers, as early as the 1200's BCE, and edited later.
Hindu god of preservation and love; appears on earth in various forms in times of crisis.
Sanskrit for "to yoke or join"; refers to a variety of methods that seek to join the individual soul to the Ultimate, and thus achieve liberation from rebirth
in Hinduism, the way of action
What did Hindu people call themselves?
Sanatana Dharma
What does Santana Dharma mean?
Eternal Religion/duty
What language were the Vedas written in?
Aryan/ Sanskrit
Caste System
Top: Brahmins
Bottom: Shudras
what are the 4 stages of life?
-Student (learn from a guru and are celibate)
-Householders (marriage and have children)
-forest dweller (semi-retirement - renounce sexuality)
ॐ aka om
most Veda begin and end with this
Law of Manu Smriti
-It is considered the oldest and one of the most important texts
-Some of these codes of conduct pertain to the caste system and discuss the stages of life for "twice-born" males
Movies with Hinduism in them
Water; A Touch of Pink
4 Goals
wealth (householders)

The concept includes achieving widespread fame, garnering wealth and having an elevated social standing.
pleasure (householders)

involves sensual gratification, sexual fulfillment, pleasure of the senses, love, and the aesthetic enjoyments of life.
duty/obligation (everyone)
break from the cycle of samsara

refers to liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth and all of the suffering and limitation of worldly existence.
eternal, unchanging self/soul "ego" "I"
ultimate/absolute/the "truth"
what religions did most untouchables convert to
one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana.

Pandavas - good
Kauravas - bad
(families) and are offspring from the gods

Its discussion of human goals takes place in a long-standing mythological tradition, attempting to explain the relationship of the individual to society and the world (the nature of the 'Self') and the workings of karma.
The Rāmāyaṇa
consists of 24,000 verses in seven cantos (kāṇḍas) and tells the mythological story of Rama, whose wife Sita is abducted by the demon (Rākshasa) king of Lanka, Rāvana.

Rama tries to get her back with the help of Lakshman and Hanuman (monkey god)
model for Hindu women

the wife of Rama, the seventh avatāra of Vishnu, and is esteemed an exemplar of womanly and wifely virtue
extra stories about the gods

Vishnu, Siva, and Shaki are found in these stories

Its general themes are history, tradition, philosophy, and religion
blue; Vaishnavites; Number 1 of all gods, preserver of the universe/benign; wife is Lakshni (good luck)
vehicle-garuda(half falcon/ half man)
avatars- "incarnation"(fish, tortoise, boar, etc.)Rama, Krishnu, Buddha, Kalki
red/ashen; meditate on a mountain; 3rd eye; ganges in her hair; moon; follers have 3 horizontal lines on their heads; wife parvati; child gonesha, vehicle- Nand(bull), trident
elephant head, fat stomach, loves to eat, popular with student or business venture
female goddess in her many forms: Kali, Durga are two
-universal mother
-black destructress, destroyer, child death; followers are Thuggees (or thugs), usually naked
-from Shakti
- created by male gods-10 arms each w/ a weapon in it from the different gods
-from Shakti
a religious ritual that Hindus perform on a variety of occasions to pray or show respect to their chosen Gods or Goddesses. Most practicing Hindus pray once or twice a day. Pujas are reserved for special occasions like house warming. Puja should be done after a shower or bath and it is recommended that rites be performed before food intake to ensure sattvic qualities and full concentration (dhyana)
Festival of Colors - spring time
a day that everyone is the same level
Festival of Lights - in autumn
their "New Year"
religions that challenged Hinduism
Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Zoroastrian, Islam
very non-violent
"The Mahatma" meaning
Great Soul - Gandhi
-born Hindu as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
-introduced ahimsa which is non-violence in word and deed
-thought it was good to learn many religions and take things for each
-he walked the walk and talked the talk
-made cow a symbol of India (Mother India)
-strong advocate for vegetarianism
children of god

that is what he called the untouchables