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36 Cards in this Set

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Ethnic Cleansing
Forced displacement of an ethinc grou or grous from a articular territory, accomanied by massacres and other human rights violations; it has occurred after the breaku of multinational states, notably in the former Yugoslavia.
Secular State
A state created apart from religious establishments and in which there is a high degree of separation between religious and political organizations
Hegemonic War
War for control of the entire world order - the rules of the international system as a whole. also known as a world war, global war, general war, or systemic war
Stealth Technology
The use of special radar-absorbent materials and unusual shapes in the design of aircraft, missiles, and ships to scatter enemy radar
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, all distinguished from conventional weapons by their enormous potential lethality, and by their relative lack of discrimination in whom they kill
Biological Weapons Convention
1972 - Prohibits the development, production, and possession of biological weapons, but makes no provision for inspections
Chemical Weapons Convention
1992 - Bans the production and possession of chemical weapons, and includes strict verification provisions and the threat of sanctions against violators and against nonparticipants in the treaty
Non-proliferation Treaty
1968 - Created a framework for controlling the spread of nuclear materials and expertise, includes the IAEA
Mutually Assured Destruction
The possession of second-strike nuclear capabilites which ensures that neither of two adversaries could prevent the other from destroying it in an all-out war
Antiballistic Missle Treat
1972 - Prohibited either the US or the SU from using a ballistic missile defense as a shield which would have undermined MAD and deterrence
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
1996 - Bans all nuclear weapons testing, thereby broadening the ban on atmospheric testing negotiated in 1963
International Regime
A set of rules, norms, and procedures around which the expecetations of actors converge in a certain international issue area, such as oceans or monetary policy
UN Charter
Founding document of the UN; it is based on the principles that states are equal, have sovereignty over their own affairs, enjoy independence and territorial integrity, and must fulfill international obligation. Also lays out the structure and methods of the UN
Diplomatic Immunity
Refers to diplomats' activity being ouside the jurisdiction of the host countrys national courts
War Crimes
Violations of the law governing the conduct of warfare, such as by mistreating prisoners of war or unnecessarilty targeting civilians
Just War Doctrine
A branch of international law and political theory that defines when wars can be justly started and how they can be justly fought
Human Rights
Rights of all persons to be free from abuses such as torture or imprisonment for their political beliefs, and to enjoy certain minimum economic and social protections
Mercantilism
An economic theory and a political ideology opposed to free trade; it shares with realism the belief that state must protect its own interests without seeking mutual gains through international organizations
Liberalism
Shares the assumption of anarchy, but does not see this condition as precluding extensive cooperation to realize common gains from economic exchanges. Emphasizes absolute over relative gains and a committment to free trade and an "open" world economy
Comparative Advantage
Says states should specialize in trading those goods that they produce with the greatest relative efficiency and at the lowest relative cost
Centrally Planned Economics
An economy in which political authorities set prices and decide on quotas for production and consumption of each commodity according to a long-term plan
Transisitional Economics
Countries in Russia and Eastern Europe that are trying to convert from communtism to capitalism, with various degress of success
Mixed Economies
Economies such as those in the industrialized West that contain both some government control and some private ownership
Industrial Policy
The strategies by which a government works actively with industries to promote their growth and tailor trade policy to their needs
World Trade Organization
An organization begun in 1995 that expanded the GATT's traditional focus on maufactured goods, and created monitoring and enforcement mechanisms
Collective Goods Problem
A collective good is a tangible or intangible good, created by the members of a group, that is available to all group members regardless of their individual contributions; participants can gain by lowering their own contribution to the collective good, yet if too many participants do so, the good cannot be provided
Exchange Rate
The rate at which one state's currency can be exchanged for the currency of another state. Since 1973, the international monetary system has depended mainly on floating rather than fixed exchange rates
Fixed Exchange Rates
The official rates of exchange for currencies set by governments; not a dominant mechanism in the international monetary system since 1973
Floating Exchange Rates
The rates determined by global currency markets in which private investors and governments alike can by and sell currencies
Devalutation
A unilateral move to reduce the value of a currency by changing a fixed or official exchange rate
Bretton Woods System
A post-World War II arrangement for managint the world economy, established at a meeting in Bretton Woods, NH in 1944. Its main institutional components are the World Bank and the IMF
World Bank
Established in 1944 as a source of loans to help reconstruct the European economies. Later, the main borrowers were third world countries and, in the 1990s, Eastern European ones
International Monetary Fund
An IGO that coordinates international currency exange, the balance of international payments, and national accounts.
Balance of Payments
A summary of all the flows of money in and out of a country. It includes three types of international transactions: the current account (including the merchandise trade balance), flows of capital, and changes in reserves
Keynesian Economics
The principles articulated by British economist John Maynard Keynes, used successfully in the Great Depression of the 1930s, including the view that governments should sometimes use deficit spending to stimulate economic growth
Risk Assessment
The preinvestment efforts by corporations to determine how likely it is that future political conditions in the target country will change so radically as to disrupt the flow of income