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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Approximately half of all Internet users now live in the Global South.
The communications revolution holds great promise for the Global South, because modern information technology may allow poorer countries to “leap frog” ahead in the development path followed by the Global North.
The division between the Internet technology-rich Global North and the Global South in the proportion of Internet users and hosts is known as the Internet Divide.
Not only does the media set the agenda of issues for public discussion, but it also plays a large role in determining public opinion on these issues.
The WTO’s World Telecom Pact ended government and private telecommunication monopolies in many states.
A highly mobile population has made the spread of infectious diseases a potential security issue.
Alien species of plants, animals and insects that cross borders can cause massive ecological destruction.
Liberal democracies display moral inconsistencies by simultaneously defending the fundamental right of refugees to emigrate and the absolute right of sovereign states to control their borders.
The volume of trade currently is much higher than the volume of financial flows, and this gap continues to widen, thanks to globalization.
Because the computerization of financial transactions occurred at the same time as states increased their regulation of global investments, the mobility of capital was slowed down immensely.
The ____________________ is a popular image used to describe the growth of awareness that all people share a common fate, stemming from a macro perspective that the world is an integrated and interdependent whole
global village
____________________ is the term used to describe the division between those states that have a high proportion of Internet users and hosts, and those that do not.
Digital divide
According to some analysts, globalization has caused an erosion of state ____________________, as evidenced by the inability of states to control their economies and to control environmental problems.
Illegal drug traffickers are one example of crime syndicates, also known as ______________________________, specializing in the use of technology to cooperatively network with one another throughout the world.
international organized crime
One tool for managing risk by combining speculation in “options” and “futures” to hedge against volatility in financial markets is the use of ____________________.
A French phrase that Adam Smith and other commercial liberals used to describe the advantages of free-wheeling capitalism without government interference in economic affairs is _________________________.
laissez-faire economics
Neomercantilists are also known as _________________________.
economic nationalists
_________________________ were a protectionist measure popular in the 1980s and early 1990s in which exporting countries agree to restrict shipments of a particular product to a country to deter it from imposing an even more onerous import quota.
Voluntary export restrictions
Countervailing duties and antidumping duties are examples of what type of protectionist policy? _________________________
strategic trade policy
The school of thought that argues that free trade and economic order depend on the existence of an overwhelmingly powerful state, willing and able to use its strength to open and organize world markets, is _________________________.
hegemonic stability theory
The multilateral trade negotiations of GATT that began in 1986 and concluded in 1995 with the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are known as _________________________.
The Uruguay Round
The sum of a country’s positive financial transactions with the external world minus the country’s total international debt is known as its _________________________.
balance of payments
_________________________ is the notion that under conditions of globalization the depletion of one country’s currency reserves panics investors worldwide and spread like a contagious disease to other countries, which, in a chain reaction, witness the decline of their own currency reserves as the flight of capital also reduces the value of their currency.
Commercial domino theory
___________________________________ is a regional trade agreement that lowers trade barriers among the United States, Canada and Mexico.
North American Free Trade Agreement
____________________ is a principle for trade that proclaims that goods produced at home and abroad are to be treated the same for import and export agreements.
As global trade continues to grow, it is expected that ____________________, or the difference between growth rates in trade and GDP, will increasingly bind countries’ economies ever more tightly in interdependent relationships.
trade integration
While conflict in international relations is inevitable and can even be productive, armed conflict is always destructive in some way.
One trend in contemporary warfare is the growing number of armed conflicts among states in the Global North, who have much more of a stake in winning.
Realists believe that all humans are born with an innate drive for power that they cannot avoid, and this instinct leads to competition and war.
The 1986 Seville Statement maintained that it is scientifically incorrect to say that violent behavior is genetically programmed into human nature.
To ascribe the traits of a particular state leader, like Adolf Hitler or George Bush, to all people in the state they lead is to commit the error of ecological fallacy.
Feminist theorists argue that war is a result of cultural conditioning that reinforces the notion that war is a necessary fact of life.
The most impoverished nations have been the least likely to start wars with their neighbors.
Historically, geographic location has rarely been the source of international conflict.
Liberals believe that globalization, which brings more people in contact with one another, is the primary cause of war.
Established democracies are unlikely to go to war against each other.
____________________ is discord, often arising in international relations over perceived incompatibilities of interest. This can escalate to ____________________, which is combat between the military forces of two or more states or groups.
Conflict, armed conflict
Feminists argue that through _________________________ people have come to believe that war is an inevitable fact of international relations.
cultural conditioning
Sentimental devotion to the welfare of one’s own nation without concern for the common interest of all nations and states in the global community is known as ____________________.
The theory that war is likely when a dominant great power is threatened by the rapid growth of a rival’s capabilities, which reduces the difference in their relative power is known as _________________________.
Power transition theory
The United States is considered a ____________________ today because it is the dominant military and economic state and uses its unrivaled power to create and enforce rules aimed at preserving the existing world order and its own position in that order.
The deliberate use or threat of violence against noncombatants, calculated to instill fear, alarm, and ultimately a feeling of helplessness is known as ____________________.
The formal assistance, training, and arming of foreign terrorists by a state in order to achieve foreign policy goals is known as ______________________________.
state-sponsored terrorism
Under the condition of anarchy, realists view military strength as the primary source of national security and international influence.
It has always been the case that the side that spends the most on its military will win a military conflict.
Elements of power include the relative size of a state’s capabilities, its geographic position, its technological capacity, and its degree of dependence on foreign sources of materials.
Power only has meaning in relative terms -- a state has power only when it can prevail over its adversary.
The “peace dividend” refers to the amount that stability is increased for every dollar spent on increasing armaments.
In 2004, the Global South spent more in total on arms acquisitions than the Global North.
One trend in the sale of arms is for the distribution of weapons to coincide with the location of major regional conflicts, such as the Near East.
The term military-industrial complex describes a coalition among arms manufacturers, military bureaucracies, and government officials.
In recent years, approximately one-third of the recipients of U.S. arms sales have not been democracies.
Arms suppliers use their clout to determine how the weapons they sell are used.
Because the anarchical global system encourages states to rely on ____________________ for protection, ____________________ is of paramount priority on policymakers’ foreign policy agendas.
self-help, national security
The ability of one state to make another continue a course of action, change what it is doing, or refrain from acting is called ____________________ by political science scholars.
The strategy of employing threats or limited force to persuade an opponent to stop or undo an action already underway is known as ____________________ diplomacy.
Military expenditures incur ____________________ in that money spent on the military diminishes the amount of money that is available for investment in other areas, such as trade, infrastructure, or education.
opportunity costs
The _________________________, a coalition among arms manufacturers, military bureaucracies, and top government officials, is widely believed to exercise enormous power over defense budgets and arms sales agreements in the United States.
military-industrial complex
The legal doctrine that states have supreme authority to govern their internal affairs and manage their foreign relations with other states and nonstate actors is known as ____________________.
The formal legal acceptance of a state’s official status as an independent country is known as ______________________________.
diplomatic recognition
de jure diplomatic recognition
____________________ is when a third party offers a location for discussions among disputants but does not participate in the actual negotiations.
Good offices
____________________ is a doctrine regarding moral considerations under which war may be undertaken and how it should be fought once it begins.
Just war doctrine
The UN’s policy during the Cold War of taking actions in advance of a predictable crisis to prevent superpower involvement and limit violence was known as ____________________.
preventive diplomacy
A reform movement proposing as a path to peace combining two or more previously independent countries to form a single unified federal state is known as ____________________.
world federalism
According to functionalists, technical experts that make up ____________________, rather than professional diplomats, are the best agents for building collaborative links across national borders.
epistemic communities
The regional organization created by the merger of the European Coal and Steel Community, the European Atomic Energy Community, and the European Economic Community is the ____________________.
European Union (EU)
____________________ is the theory that, because democratic states do not fight one another, the diffusion of democratic governance throughout the world will reduce the probability of war.
Democratic Peace
Why did the Global South push for a New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO)?
They felt that the flow of images and information from North to South fostered Northern values of consumerism and conspicuous consumption that perpetrated the South’s dependence on the North.
How does the spread of AIDS undermine economic development in the South?
Mainly strikes young wage earners in the South who are the foundation of the labor force.
Increased government health costs.
Explain the process of arbitrage and why it is an important component of international finance.
Arbitrage is the selling of one currency and purchase of another to make a profit on the changing exchange rates. It helps keep states’ currencies in balance through traders’ speculative efforts to buy large quantities of devalued currencies and sell them in countries where they are valued more highly.
What was the main goal of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)?
To promote international trade and tariff reductions.
Why do analysts believe we are moving toward a world composed of many qualitatively different types of actors?
While states are not about to disappear, they are increasingly challenged by nonstate actors, like MNCs.
What are the two opposing views of how terrorism should be fought?
repression, conciliation
What are the main trends in late twentieth-century armed conflicts?
The proportion of countries throughout the world engaged in wars has declined in recent years.
Wars between the great powers have decreased.
Most wars now occur in the Global South.
Waging war to conquer foreign territory is no longer a motive.
List two of the possible state-level causes of war.
Duration of independence
Cultural determinants/cultural conditioning
Economic system
Type of government
How can economic interdependence reduce the probability of war?
Through openness to the global economy, high amounts of bilateral trade, and economic development.
What is the “bargaining model of war”?
An interpretation of war’s onset as a choice by the initiator to bargain through aggression with an enemy in order to win on an issue or to obtain things of value, such as territory or oil.
Explain why power is situationally specific.
The capabilities that allow an actor to influence one set of countries on a certain issue may be useless in influencing other countries on a different matter.
What was the main economic reason for the high level of arms sales by the United States?
Used arms exports to offset its chronic balance-of-trade deficit.
What are the conditions that make nuclear proliferation more likely today?
The expertise necessary for weapons development has spread with the globalization of advanced scientific training.
Export controls designed to stop technology transfer for military purposes are ineffectual.
The materials needed to make a nuclear weapon are widely available.
What is the difference between “horizontal nuclear proliferation” and “vertical nuclear proliferation”?
Horizontal: increase in the number of nuclear states
Vertical: increase in the capabilities of existing nuclear powers
What is the difference between compellence and deterrence?
Compellence contains an offensive coercive threat aimed at persuading an adversary to relinquish something without resistance.
Deterrence seeks to dissuade an adversary from undertaking some future action.
Why did President Bush argue in 2002 that deterrence must give way to preemption?
Deterrence will not work against terrorists whose tactics included wanton destruction and targeting innocent civilians; whose soldiers seek martyrdom; and who do not belong to a state.
What conditions favor the effective use of coercive diplomacy?
Clarity of user objectives.
Asymmetry of motivation favoring the user.
Opponent’s fear of escalation and belief in the urgency for compliance.
Adequate domestic and international support for the user.
Clarity on the precise terms of settlement.
What are the five major policy goals pursued by states when they employ economic sanctions?
International symbolism
Domestic symbolism
What shift in thinking about security is embraced by the term “common security”?
Common security advocates replacing the notion of states competing with one another for their own national security with collective security to promote the security of all states.