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77 Cards in this Set

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Enlightenment
applying scientific theory & modes of discovery to human affairs/ time period (most people turn away from church during this period)
Universality
immutability of Natural Law- all times are the same
Immutablility
human nature does not change
Natural Law
laws that govern all processes in the Universe
Great Chain of Being
the heirarchial pattern of all things
Hierarchy
order of rank
Classical Age
Romans, and Greeks

i.e. the height of mankinds achievements
Didactic(ism)
litterature designed to instruct audience
Golden Mean of Virtue
virtuous behaviour is that which is the mean between extremes of possible action
3 Unities
- unity of time place and action

- moderation- avoidance of excess
- mistrust of passion- Faith in reason
- composistion of a tragedy
- Time- must be no more than one day
- Place- must be local (what can be presented on stage)
- Action- must all lead to one main theme (no subplots or digressions)
Neoclassicism
belief that the classical age represents the height of mandkind's achievements
The Poetics
Composistion of what makes a good tragedy (see 3 unities)
EC: Defenestrate
throw an object or person out the window out of window
EC: vicissitude
variable or unexpected changes, esp. in a person's fortunes
EC: impecunious
poor: having little or no money, and so unable to lead a comfortable life
verse epistle
a letter in poetic form
heroic couplets
pairs of rhymed lines in iambic pentameter
didactic
designed to instruct the reader
transcendent
above and outside of nature
plentitude
the belief that God created all possible forms of being exactly as they should be; the Universe is, therefore, fully populated by beings perfectly suited to their roles- a perfect creator does not leave gaps or make mistakes
Philosophial Optimism
is the concept that "this is the best of all possible worlds"
Example: "WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT" Pope
Great chain of being
the aristotelian belief that all forms of being exist on a hierarchial scale, in order of their complexity
Other charcteristics of GCB
- chain is perfect
- chain is eternal
- chain is full- nothing can be added or deleted (plentitude)
- chain is fixed (immutable)
- each being in the chain is more complex than the one below, and simpler than the one above. (heirarchial)
Order of Complexity of Beings in GCB
stone
flame
plant
beast
human
angel
WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT
Pope says in An Essay on Man
Neoclassicism (beliefs)
- truth is known through Reason (head)
- Trust in anceint authorities
- group is more important than the individual
- society, like the universe, must be ordered and ranked (hierarchiacal)
- society is static (fixed0
- Moderation is a virtue
- Man must subdue Nature
- Man must submit to whatit
Romanticism (beliefs)
- Thruth is known through Feelings (instinct, body)
- trust in personal experience
- the individual is more important than the group
- Society, like nature, is egalitarian, not ranked
- Society is dynamic (mobile)
- Excess is desirable
- man must imitate nature
Epistemology
study of how we know what we know
Egalitarianism
equality of all humankind
Anti- intelectualism & - materialism
Romantics mistrust traditional education & money and reject the pursuit of wealth
Jean- Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
Beliefs:
- goal of education is to teach a child to be thoroughly indendent
- permit child to satisfy his desires in a controlled environment
- Girls' eduction must be oriented toward keeping men satisfied in healthy marriage
William Wordsworth
(1770-1850)
"Nature Poet"
- very religious view of nature
- anti-intellectutal
- money is corrupting
- distressed & uncomfortable in cities
- only emotional & psychological peace through the countryside
- egalitarian
Pantheism
god is immanent & present in everything
Benevolent
it wants the best for its creatures
Wise passiveness
not by aggressively chasing after ideas
Henirich Heine
German, 1840's wrote, Silesian Weavers,
moral suasion
seek change by persuading people that slaveholding is morally worng

(William Lloyd Garrison)
Fredirick Douglass
wrote Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass, An Americn Slave/ & The North Star (abolitionist newspaper)
Genre: Slave Narrative
Basic Plot:
-Awakening to humanness
-Awareness of freedom's potential
-Plan and Escape
-Freedom

Features:
- strong christian influence
- sensational scences of brutality
- attack on slavery as an institution
- appeal to sympathy & moral sensitivity of the reader
13th ammendment
outlaws slavery
14th ammendment
grants due process to all(male citizens)
15th ammendment
suffrage to African- Americans
19th ammendment
suffrage to women
Declaration of Sentiments
written by staton & mott at the seneca falls convention- signed by both men and women
Satire
a type of didactic literature that seeks to correct human follies by ridiculing them
satyr
1/2man, 1/2goat
utopia
perfectly realized vision of the ideals often proclaimed but generally violated in the reader's own world
misanthrope
a person who hates mankind
misanthropy
the hatred of mankind
7 deadly sins
sins for which Christioans believed they would lose their souls
(pride, anger, greed, gluttony, lust, envy, sloth)
7 virtues
prudence/ temperance/ courage/ justice/ faith/ hope/ charity
Cardinal virtues
those that anyone, Christian or no believers, can achieve

(prudence, temperance, courage, justice)
Theological virtues
virtues expected of believers

(Hope, faith, chairity)
johnathen Swift

wrote?
Gulliver's travels
satire
a type of didactic literature that seeks to correct human follies by ridiculing them

"satyr"= 1/2man, 1/2 goat
Utopia
a perfectly realized vision of the ideals often proclaimed but generally violated in the reader's own world
7 deadly sins
sins for which Christians believed they would lose their souls

pride/ anger/ greed/ gluttony/ lust/ envy/ sloth
7 virtues
Cardinal virtues: those that anyone, christian or non-believers, can acheive

prudence/ temperance/ courage/ justice

Theological virtues: virtues expected of believers

faith/ hope/ chairity
Walt Whitman
Romantic writer
wrote Song of Myself from the Leaves of Grass

Poetic techniques:
- free verse
- colloquial speech
- catalogs= lists
Charles Darwin
wrote the 'origin of species'
- start of realism
Mutability
species change
Natural selection
the process of change, survival of the fittest- extinction of species
Realism
literary technique that strove to capture the world as it is- to record in detail. The idea was to "report" reality- to describe the wrold without prejudice or assumptions, objectively.
Objectivty
feature of realism-
- artist must be invisible
- artist must reflect, but not interpret, reality
Inclusivity
feature of realism-
- artist should not "edit" reality
- ugly & beautiful, boring & exciting have equal claim
Anti- Romantic
feature of realism-
- themes often seek to debunk romantic concepts
alexander pope
wrote 'An Essay on Man'
- style is in verse epistle, heroic couplets, and didactic
jean racine
wrote 'Phaedra'- neoclassical writer-
Jean- Jacques Rousseau
wrote 'Confessions'- romantic style
William Wordsworth
wrote 'Tintern Abbey', 'Expostulation & Reply', 'the Tables Turned'
Stanton & Mott
wrote the Declaration of Sentiments- signed by both men and women
Alfred Lord Tennyson
wrote "the lady of Shallott" at the end of the Romatic movements but forced into the realism movement
Robert Browning
wrote ' Porphria's Lover' & ' My last dutchess' - style was trying to mix realism with romantic
Song of Myself
written by Walt Whitman
- expresses everything: if it includes male than he also includes female, white & black, Genius & un-intellectual, etc
- Free verse
- colloquial speech
- catologs (lists)
Confessions
written by Jean- Jacques Rousseau
- I, I, I, I, I, autobiography and he expresses his views, and is self-obssesed!!!! look for the I's!!!!
An Essay On Man
Written by Alexandar Pope
- verse epistle
- heroic couplets
- didactic
The Liberator
Written by William Lloyd Garrison
- Abolitionist newspaper
he expresses moral suassion (persuade people that slavery is bad)