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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
James I
the first Stuart monarch who had agreed to rule according to English laws and customs but later clashes with Parliemant over money and foreign policy
Charles I
the next Stuart monarch who imprisoned his foes without trial and squeezed the nation for money
Petition of Rights
this prohibited the king (Charles I) from raising taxes without the consent of the Parliament or from imprisoning anyone without case
Cavalier
supporters of Charles I. many were wealthy nobles who were trained in dueling and warfare
Roundhead
the forces of Parliament that were composed of Country gentry, town-dwelling manufacturers, and Puritan clergy. they were called this because their hair was cut close around their heads
Oliver Cromwell
the Roundhead leader, a Puritan member of the lesser gentry, and a skilled general. he organized the "New Model Army" for Parliament into a disciplined fighting source
Leveller
a group that thought that poor men should have a say in government as a gentry, lawyers, and other leading citizens
English Bill of Rights
bill that ensured the superiority of Parliament over the monarchy
dissenter
Protestant whose views and opinions differed with those of the Church of England
habeas corpus
principal that a person cannot be heald in prison without first being charged with a specific crime
limited monarchy
government in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarch's power
Peace of Westphalia
a series of treaties that ends the Thirty Years War
Maria Theresa
the daughter of Charles VI who was the first women to have ruled in the Hapsburg lands
War of the Australian Succession
war between Maria Theresa and Frederick II
Frederick the Great
when king, he made a brilliant use of his disciplined army, forcing all to accept Prussia as a great power
Seven Years War
a wat that lasted 7 years and was fought on 4 continents
elector
one of seven German princes who would choose the Holy Roman emperor
mercenary
soldier serving in a foreign army for pay
depopulation
a reduction in population
Peter the Great
created the largest standing army in Europe and set out to extend Russian borders to the west and south
St. Petersburg
the capital of the land Peter won from Sweden. it became the great symbol of Peter's desire to forge a modern Russia
Vitus Bering
a Danish navigator whom Peter hired to explore what became known as the Bering Strait
Catherine the Great
a German princess by birth who learned Russian, embraced the Russian Orthodox faith, and won the loyalty of the people
westernization
adoption of western ideas, tachnology, and culture
boyar
landowning noble in Russia under the Czars
warm-water port
port that is free of ice all year
partition
to divide