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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the renaissance?
• Not until 1860’s that historians definitively label Renaissance
• Renaissance = movement into enlightenment
Pre-Renaissance Europe
• Pre- Renaissance Europe
o Society exhausted
 Devastated by wars
• War of Roses
• 100 years war
 Plague
 Religious questioning
o Irresponsibility from leadership
 Only know how to fight wars
By end of 15th Century
o Important changes:
 New career
 Significant economic expansion
 Europe increasingly connecting with middle east and far east
 Powerful monarchs – Challenging Feudal lords
 Schism healed – pope back in Rome
 Introduction of humanism
o Geographically – Italian communities – these happen first
 Economically, ascetically, intellectually
• NOT politically
Why Italy??
o Italy did NOT have a series of wars
 So, no physical destruction
o Fairly safe from invasions
 Alps
o Islamic empire trade in Mediterranean weakening
 Italy in a good position
o The cultural movements in Europe – stagnant
 Ex. Gothic architecture – no room for innovation
• This attitude of innovation not in Italian culture
• They can adapt
 Only urban developments in the middle ages
• Flanders (MD Belgium) – trade and wool
• Italian city-states – trade and wool
 In these regions, they don’t maintain ties with past – moving on
 North Italy important for trade
Italian Peninsula
o City States – (Like a modern Polis)
 Urban center
 Surrounding lands – provide resources
o Cities of North Italy dominate trade of Western world
 Florence – 1/3 of population in wool and trade
 Venice – trade in Silks and spices (from east)
 In Urban:
• Bankers and manufacturers – increasingly important
• Export merchant – increasingly important
o Increasingly dominate areas around them
o Break power of landed nobility
End up with...what? (Classes)
 A territorial unit with urban core and surrounding lands
 Class division becoming sharper and different
• Upper class – wealthy merchants
o Popolo Grasso – “fat people”
o Popolo Minuto – “small/little people”
 Shop keepers, craftsmen, small businesses
o Masses of people
o Most conflict between the Grasso’s and Minuto’s
o A new group emerging – economically powerful
 Old economic power: (the Popolo Minuto)
o Sometimes conflict was so great, the communities would hire military dictators
 Strengthen defenses
 Improve utilities
 Often put in police protection
 Effective tax systems
o Leaders didn’t want to take time away to maintain law and order, so they hire others.
this is the age of...
The age of Despots (dictators)
Also - communities are rivaling each other
• Florence – becoming rich
• Sienna – becoming rich
• Venice
o All three – develop a system of representatives to send to other places/courts to spy/represent
 =ambassadors
Top 5 city-states
• Venice
• Florence
• Milan
• Naples
• The Papal states
o They maintain a balance of power
o No king – pieces more important than the whole
o Local is important
Society at this time...rules not Feudalistic
 Birth/status less important
 Continental market place very important
 Competition is important
 New careers opening – to people with new ideas
 Ingenuity = valued
 Also – self reliance
What results?
 The Italian concept of a virtu
 VIRTU – someone true to self – fills potential (not necessarily moral)
• Da Vinci
o Scientist
o Artist – Mona Lisa, Last Supper
o Medical – Anatomy
• Renaissance man/woman
Characteristics of Italian communities
o 1. Individualism
 Historically, you are just an extension of y our group
 Groups = important
 Renaissance – as an individual
• Focus on self, family
• Your connection with everything
o God, nature, business
o 2. Secularism
 People less concerned about abstract religious concepts
• Focus on what’s happening
 NOT becoming less religious, just making distinctions
 Increasingly important because of writings
• Values of this world vs. otherworldliness
• Where to put your energy?
o 3. Humanism
 Enthusiasm for the classic, ancient world
 Study works of ancient Greeks
• Francesco Petrarca
o 1304 – 1374
o He begins a study of people like Cicero – Ancient Rome
o People can relate to this
• Studies, translates, teaches scriptures (can make a living doing this!)
• Outside of church
• In 1395 – many scholars fled from Constantinople
o No academic freedom in Constantinople because of Turks
o Go to Italian communities, know Greek stuff…
o Most go into Florence – Greek, Hebrew, Arabic taught in Italian world
o These scholars – supported by ruling class
o They are a revolution in education
 Push education in a direction of (what we call a) liberal arts education
o Before – math theology, roman law
o Now
 could study Greek, Arabic – languages
 Physical education
 Manners
o By studying language, you convey the culture
o Greek, Hebrew, Arabic
o 4. development of historical self conscious
 Pre-Renaissance
• Belief = if you looked at human history, we developed – peak is Christianity
• So, you and your role in history is insignificant
o Peak passed
 Renaissance – can have other peaks
 End up expressing this idea in artwork
• Florence, Sienna, Pisa
 Literature develops
• Validation of earlier work
• What is truth? Translation skews information…
• Validate/don’t validate
 Science
• Padua University
o Famous for study in mathematics
• Increasing knowledge of human anatomy
• Science of perspective
o Middle age art – flat
o Renaissance – 3-D
Development of social and poilitcal thought...writers
o Human-human ….????
o Leon Battista Alberti
 1404 – 1472
 Wrote a book – “On the Family”
• A Florentine Boujwa (middle/upper class) family
o Relationship to the communitiy
o Baldassare Castiglone
 1478 – 1529
• “the Courtier” – about a Renaissance gentleman; what was expected
o Nicolo Machiavelli
 1469 – 1527
 “Discourses on Levy”
• Levy = an important Ancient Roman author
 “the Prince”
• Describes power, political breakdown
• “Absolute power corrupts absolutely”
 People who are politically oriented, uses power, misuses power
 Machiavelli didn’t say you have to be mean to be powerful…he did a study
Artists in the Renaissance
o The artist is to renaissance
o As the saint is to the middle ages
o As the scientist is to the modern world

o Painting and sculpting separate from architecture
o Masaccio
 1401 – 1428
 Founder of Renaissance painting
• Human figure as a whole in 3-D perspective
• Minute details sacrificed for realism
o Donatello
 1386 – 1466
 First in Renaissance to do a free standing nude figure
o Michelangelo
 1475 – 1564
 Sculpture
 Also – painting (Sistine chapel)
 Designed dome on St. Peters
o Bramante
 Original architect of St. Peters
 Raphael
• St. Peters


o [The pope behind St. Peters – Julius II]

o Leonardo Da Vinci

 1452 – 1519
 Man in a recognizable space
 God is viewed through man’s eyes
• <Renaissance thought>
o Durer – German painter
Church during the Renaissance
o Not a golden age for church
o Major problems:
 Prestige of church decreasing
 Concern about growth of heresies
 Significant financial/administrator/and moral abuses in the church
 Schism
• 2 popes in 2 places
• Need to heal: 1st step:
o End of 14th century – series of church councils held together
o Is the pope the embodiment of the church? <problem
o Where is authority?
o If not in the traditional 1 pope…
o Shift: Authority in council
o Pope = limited monarch
o Historically:
o Pope gets power from God...=his authority
o Changing to:
o lower classes give the upper class power
what is the renaissance?
• Not until 1860’s that historians definitively label Renaissance
• Renaissance = movement into enlightenment
Pre-Renaissance Europe
• Pre- Renaissance Europe
o Society exhausted
 Devastated by wars
• War of Roses
• 100 years war
 Plague
 Religious questioning
o Irresponsibility from leadership
 Only know how to fight wars
By end of 15th Century
o Important changes:
 New career
 Significant economic expansion
 Europe increasingly connecting with middle east and far east
 Powerful monarchs – Challenging Feudal lords
 Schism healed – pope back in Rome
 Introduction of humanism
o Geographically – Italian communities – these happen first
 Economically, ascetically, intellectually
• NOT politically
Why Italy??
o Italy did NOT have a series of wars
 So, no physical destruction
o Fairly safe from invasions
 Alps
o Islamic empire trade in Mediterranean weakening
 Italy in a good position
o The cultural movements in Europe – stagnant
 Ex. Gothic architecture – no room for innovation
• This attitude of innovation not in Italian culture
• They can adapt
 Only urban developments in the middle ages
• Flanders (MD Belgium) – trade and wool
• Italian city-states – trade and wool
 In these regions, they don’t maintain ties with past – moving on
 North Italy important for trade
Italian Peninsula
o City States – (Like a modern Polis)
 Urban center
 Surrounding lands – provide resources
o Cities of North Italy dominate trade of Western world
 Florence – 1/3 of population in wool and trade
 Venice – trade in Silks and spices (from east)
 In Urban:
• Bankers and manufacturers – increasingly important
• Export merchant – increasingly important
o Increasingly dominate areas around them
o Break power of landed nobility
End up with...what? (Classes)
 A territorial unit with urban core and surrounding lands
 Class division becoming sharper and different
• Upper class – wealthy merchants
o Popolo Grasso – “fat people”
o Popolo Minuto – “small/little people”
 Shop keepers, craftsmen, small businesses
o Masses of people
o Most conflict between the Grasso’s and Minuto’s
o A new group emerging – economically powerful
 Old economic power: (the Popolo Minuto)
o Sometimes conflict was so great, the communities would hire military dictators
 Strengthen defenses
 Improve utilities
 Often put in police protection
 Effective tax systems
o Leaders didn’t want to take time away to maintain law and order, so they hire others.
this is the age of...
The age of Despots (dictators)
Also - communities are rivaling each other
• Florence – becoming rich
• Sienna – becoming rich
• Venice
o All three – develop a system of representatives to send to other places/courts to spy/represent
 =ambassadors
Top 5 city-states
• Venice
• Florence
• Milan
• Naples
• The Papal states
o They maintain a balance of power
o No king – pieces more important than the whole
o Local is important
Society at this time...rules not Feudalistic
 Birth/status less important
 Continental market place very important
 Competition is important
 New careers opening – to people with new ideas
 Ingenuity = valued
 Also – self reliance
What results?
 The Italian concept of a virtu
 VIRTU – someone true to self – fills potential (not necessarily moral)
• Da Vinci
o Scientist
o Artist – Mona Lisa, Last Supper
o Medical – Anatomy
• Renaissance man/woman
Characteristics of Italian communities
o 1. Individualism
 Historically, you are just an extension of y our group
 Groups = important
 Renaissance – as an individual
• Focus on self, family
• Your connection with everything
o God, nature, business
o 2. Secularism
 People less concerned about abstract religious concepts
• Focus on what’s happening
 NOT becoming less religious, just making distinctions
 Increasingly important because of writings
• Values of this world vs. otherworldliness
• Where to put your energy?
o 3. Humanism
 Enthusiasm for the classic, ancient world
 Study works of ancient Greeks
• Francesco Petrarca
o 1304 – 1374
o He begins a study of people like Cicero – Ancient Rome
o People can relate to this
• Studies, translates, teaches scriptures (can make a living doing this!)
• Outside of church
• In 1395 – many scholars fled from Constantinople
o No academic freedom in Constantinople because of Turks
o Go to Italian communities, know Greek stuff…
o Most go into Florence – Greek, Hebrew, Arabic taught in Italian world
o These scholars – supported by ruling class
o They are a revolution in education
 Push education in a direction of (what we call a) liberal arts education
o Before – math theology, roman law
o Now
 could study Greek, Arabic – languages
 Physical education
 Manners
o By studying language, you convey the culture
o Greek, Hebrew, Arabic
o 4. development of historical self conscious
 Pre-Renaissance
• Belief = if you looked at human history, we developed – peak is Christianity
• So, you and your role in history is insignificant
o Peak passed
 Renaissance – can have other peaks
 End up expressing this idea in artwork
• Florence, Sienna, Pisa
 Literature develops
• Validation of earlier work
• What is truth? Translation skews information…
• Validate/don’t validate
 Science
• Padua University
o Famous for study in mathematics
• Increasing knowledge of human anatomy
• Science of perspective
o Middle age art – flat
o Renaissance – 3-D
Development of social and poilitcal thought...writers
o Human-human ….????
o Leon Battista Alberti
 1404 – 1472
 Wrote a book – “On the Family”
• A Florentine Boujwa (middle/upper class) family
o Relationship to the communitiy
o Baldassare Castiglone
 1478 – 1529
• “the Courtier” – about a Renaissance gentleman; what was expected
o Nicolo Machiavelli
 1469 – 1527
 “Discourses on Levy”
• Levy = an important Ancient Roman author
 “the Prince”
• Describes power, political breakdown
• “Absolute power corrupts absolutely”
 People who are politically oriented, uses power, misuses power
 Machiavelli didn’t say you have to be mean to be powerful…he did a study
Artists in the Renaissance
o The artist is to renaissance
o As the saint is to the middle ages
o As the scientist is to the modern world

o Painting and sculpting separate from architecture
o Masaccio
 1401 – 1428
 Founder of Renaissance painting
• Human figure as a whole in 3-D perspective
• Minute details sacrificed for realism
o Donatello
 1386 – 1466
 First in Renaissance to do a free standing nude figure
o Michelangelo
 1475 – 1564
 Sculpture
 Also – painting (Sistine chapel)
 Designed dome on St. Peters
o Bramante
 Original architect of St. Peters
 Raphael
• St. Peters


o [The pope behind St. Peters – Julius II]

o Leonardo Da Vinci

 1452 – 1519
 Man in a recognizable space
 God is viewed through man’s eyes
• <Renaissance thought>
o Durer – German painter
Church during the Renaissance
o Not a golden age for church
o Major problems:
 Prestige of church decreasing
 Concern about growth of heresies
 Significant financial/administrator/and moral abuses in the church
 Schism
• 2 popes in 2 places
NEED TO HEAL - first step
• Need to heal: 1st step:
o End of 14th century – series of church councils held together
o Is the pope the embodiment of the church? <problem
o Where is authority?
o If not in the traditional 1 pope…
o Shift: Authority in council
o Pope = limited monarch
o Historically:
o Pope gets power from God...=his authority
o Changing to:
o lower classes give the upper class power
need to heal - 2nd step
o Government tells the 2 popes to meet and solve problem
o 1395 – the French clergy withdraw support from the French Pope for 5 years to force him to meet
Need to heal - 3rd step
o 1408 – Many Cardinals withdraw support from the 2 popes, hold a meeting in Pisa, Select a new pope
o Next 5 years – the other 2 popes refuse to resign – now, 3 popes
Need to heal - 4th step
o 1414 - Holy Roman Emperor calls a church meeting – pressure
 Council of Constance
• 1414 – 1418
 Discuss church issues:
• Do: The Pisa Pope (John 23rd) – pressure him, force him to resign
• Also, force Roman pope to resign
 Who’s left? French Pope – want him to resign…he refuses
 They kick him out he flees to Spain
 1417 – elect a new pope – Martin V
 Lives in Rome
 Office of Pope decreasing in power
 Want to restore papal power
John Hus
• Bohemia = John Hus emerges – questions actions/beliefs of church
o 1369 – 1415
o Wants to know where to find truth…THE BIBLE
o He brought this to the council of Constance – he’s burned at the stake (Martin Luther, later, not burned)
What happens as a result??
• Civil war erupts – Germanic
o Popes have to work with government leaders
o Will the government support the church for no reason?
o Popes give some power to kings (Nicholas V)
(Monarchies developing)
Moral abuses of church
o Pope Julius II
 Built st. Peters with Michelangelo
 Good pope… also, warrior pope
o Some bad popes
 You could be in church if you give lots of money
 Church acquits wealth
 Good deeds = important, save you
o Popes get involved in Italian politics
What leads up to the italian wars?
 As Renaissance spreads – Italians lose power
 1494 – Charles VIII France
• Invaded and occupied Naples
• Spain gets involved in politics of Milan (Italy)
• France wants Milan
• Spain and France go to war :::
 Italian Wars
• 1494 – 1516
• Italians don’t join together – easy to be dominated
Now what is happening??
o Monarchy power increasing
o Revolt against authority
o MD Capitalism emerging
Significant economic expansion
 Technological developments
• Longbow
• Gun powder
• Pike – weapon (Pope hired Swiss guards, guards at Vatican still have pikes)
 Paper
• Historically, we use leather
• Also, cloth
• Recipe for making paper cam from middle east
o Can make paper in large quantities
 Moveable print – 1450
• Printing press
• Not whole page press…now, individual letters (26)
• Can rearrange
• Improves silk weaving, canon founding, mining
o Expensive…need:
o 1. available labor
o 2. capital – extra money – people will invest it
 Ex. Queen Isabella of Spain
• Columbus
Economic relationships increasingly important
 Before – Vassal, religion relationships
 Now, business relationships
 Trade increasing significantly
 By 1550
• silk, spices – Asia
• gold, silver – America
o considered usual
• 1476 – 1576
o Antwerp – City
o The wall street of North Europe
o In Flanders, (MD Belgium)
Political Centralization - FRANCE
o Beginning of 15th century
 France ruled by insane king - Charles VI
 England ruled by Henry IV
 HRE – ruled by drunk – Wenceslaus
 People want law and order
• First gets into the Italian Peninsula
o France
 Charles VI – crazy
 Then, Charles VII – adept at taking advantage of Joan of Arc fervor
 Kicks out British
 Gains control of French clergy
 1440’s – he needs money – “I need a tax”
• The Taille
 Also – he puts in place a standing army – always there
 This is continued by:
 Louis XI (11th)
• “the Spider”
• 1461 – 1483
• Also, he suppresses the major vassal
o Duke of Burgundy (Charles the BOLD)
o He controls Burgundy and Flanders and Netherlands
o Charles was Dominated by Louis XI
 Some of his land goes to HRE
 Some to France
 Next ruler – Charles VIII
• 1483 – 1498
• The Italian Wars
• Married the person who inherited Brittany – last area with Feudalisms
• France is COMPLETE
• 1494 – Charles VIII invades Italian communities
• France is the greatest power in Europe
Political Centralization -
SPAIN
 Early 1400’s – Spain is divided into petty Christian kingdoms
 Then, came together:
• Portugal, Castile, Aragon = Christian
• In South – Kingdom of Granada (Islamic)
 1469 – Queen of Castile (Isabella) marries King of Aragon (Ferdinand)
• Live separately, but did foreign policy together
• Foreign affairs
o 1. conquering Islamic power in Granada
 1492 – Several significant events
• 1. she expelled the moors (Islamic people)
• 2. expelled the Jews
• 3. expansion of trade – Columbus
• In doing #’s 1 and 2…they kick out some of the most productive members of society
o When wealth from new world stops, Spain will collapse
• Joanna inherits
o “Joanna the Crazy”
Political Centralization - ENGLAND
 Had Henry VII
• 1485 – 1509
• One of the ablest rulers
• Keep England out of foreign war
• Restored royal revenue
• Any other possible claim to throne…Elizabeth of York (he married her)
• Their son = Henry VIII
 Henry VIII
• 1509 – 1547
• Several wives
• Wasted treasury surplus … went to war a lot
• Financial crisis – needed money from the church…so he took over the church! Church now NOT in control of the Pope
• Still, England managed to be a power with France and Spain
Growth of power
o Relationship of monarchs to other power people (nobility)
o Monarch power increases…nobility (feudal lord) power decreases
 Feudal lords contained through law
Courts in France, Spain, and England
o FRANCE
 Court = conseil prive
o SPAIN
 Court = Audiencia real
o ENGLAND
 Court = Star chamber
o ((for these countries…through law, kings can curb nobility))
o Representative bodies emerge – like parliament – stand in way of king’s power:
******
o ENGLAND – Parliament
o SPAIN – Cortes
o FRANCE – Estates General
What happens to the representative bodies?
o In Spain and France, kings gain control of representative bodies
 Doesn’t call the representative body together for 100 years…so it doesn’t really have any function
o England
 Don’t get rid of parliament, because England is so small
 Also – Henry VIII fighting church…he needs parliament on his side, so it increases parliament’s power.
Middle Ages ... Church is significant (rulers?)
o Louis 11th – “most Christian king”
o Isabella and Ferdinand – “Catholic Kings”
o Henry VIII – defender of the faith
How to solve this? (the countries)
 ENGLAND – develops concept of National church when Henry takes over
• Church of England
 FRANCE – Schism, Babylonian captivity…the kings of France show their control
 SPAIN – So wealthy
• Can buy anything in the church
• Monarchs use Catholicism as technique for expanding her power – wealth from conversion of people going to kings
 ^^none of these countries are dealing with theology^^
 Norway, Sweden, Russia…same
Central Europe - HRE (Holy Roman Empire)
o Do not have hereditary rule
o No imperial taxes
o No imperial army
SE Europe
o Turks moving in – Muslim, powerful
o 1529 – on doorstep of Vienna (Danube river)
o Turks successful – because Christian world is split up, fighting…the Christians are not able to stop the Turks
o 1453 – Turks accepted Sultans as rulers – Orthodox
o Russians unhappy – they are also Orthodox
 Split between South (Greek Orthodox) and North (Russian Orthodox)
In Germany...
another group of Christians
o Arguing with other Christian groups
o Leading to Reformation
 This is…the Protestant (N MD Germany) and Catholic (S MD Germany)
• (Islam – not broken up theologically)
Reformation...sore point?
o Catholic church – lots of problems within Church
o Dissatisfaction reaching common people
 Sore point – indulgences
• Definition: A remission of temporal penalty for sin imposed by a priest in the sacrament of a penance, it can be granted on true contrition of sin and in consideration of some pious deed that you have performed.
• In Catholic church, in dealing with sin…sin can be erased
o At same time, Europe increasingly secular
 Non-religious activity taking up more time
 Religious people sensitive to religious questions
 Also…People question the complexity of the church’s sacraments – practices/rituals not seen as appropriate anymore by people
 Generated a desire for reform
• 1) Church is divinely created – cant change
o CAN change the individuals…like the Pope
• 2) Church is a government
o Pope and church officers abuse power
 Should have powers restricted
• 3) John Hus and Wiclef
o The way to fix the church is to return to the bible as the basic standard for Christian living
What new group emerges?
o Humanist – studies ancient greek and roman knowledge (Middle ages!)
o What now emerges…Christian Humanists
 Groups that look at the classical traditions, including Christianity…….Reform will come if you understand early Christianity AND Greek and Roman stuff
• Cardinal Jiminez
• Sir Thomas More
• Erasmus of Rotterdam (German town important for its universities and religious activity)
• Martin Luther
Central Europe (Power?)
HRE
o Do not have hereditary rule
o No imperial taxes
o No imperial army
SE Europe
o Turks moving in – Muslim, powerful
o 1529 – on doorstep of Vienna (Danube river)
o Turks successful – because Christian world is split up, fighting…the Christians are not able to stop the Turks
o 1453 – Turks accepted Sultans as rulers – Orthodox
o Russians unhappy – they are also Orthodox
 Split between South (Greek Orthodox) and North (Russian Orthodox)
In Germany, another group of Christians
o Arguing with other Christian groups
o Leading to Reformation
 This is…the Protestant (N MD Germany) and Catholic (S MD Germany)
• (Islam – not broken up theologically)
The REFORMATION (The Catholic church...Europe....)
o Catholic church – lots of problems within Church
o Dissatisfaction reaching common people
 Sore point – indulgences
• Definition: A remission of temporal penalty for sin imposed by a priest in the sacrament of a penance, it can be granted on true contrition of sin and in consideration of some pious deed that you have performed.
• In Catholic church, in dealing with sin…sin can be erased
o At same time, Europe increasingly secular
 Non-religious activity taking up more time
 Religious people sensitive to religious questions
 Also…People question the complexity of the church’s sacraments – practices/rituals not seen as appropriate anymore by people
 Generated a desire for reform
Cont...Created a desire for reform...3 reasons
• 1) Church is divinely created – cant change
o CAN change the individuals…like the Pope
• 2) Church is a government
o Pope and church officers abuse power
 Should have powers restricted
• 3) John Hus and Wiclef
o The way to fix the church is to return to the bible as the basic standard for Christian living
Renaissance - humanist
o Humanist – studies ancient greek and roman knowledge
o What now emerges…Christian Humanists
 Groups that look at the classical traditions, including Christianity…….Reform will come if you understand early Christianity AND Greek and Roman stuff
• Cardinal Jiminez
• Sir Thomas More
• Erasmus of Rotterdam (German town important for its universities and religious activity)
• Martin Luther
Martin Luther (Interests, childhood, young man...)
• Christian Humanist
• 1483-1546
• Interested in religion
• Luther and his father clash
• His father expected him to take over business
o Emotionally/physically abusive
• Luther went into the church – young age
o Struggle with identity
• As he matures, how does he feel value? Church, god
• Has an emotional struggle to make himself feel valued
o Studies, becomes priest…goes through self-torture,
 DOESN’T work
 Became a professor of theology – university of Wittenburg – N. Germany
 A lot of religious studying
• As a professor and with internal issues
 As he struggles – his relationship with god is through the church…and makes him question the church (because their methods didn’t work for him)
 Major issue for him = indulgences
 Catholic church – faith and good deeds = important
 Luther had faith and good deeds
 Something wrong with an indulgence and if it doesn’t work…do good deeds work? He says, only belief will get you saved
• (he also adds: good deeds are an extension of your beliefs)
 October 31, 1517 – he posts the 95 theses on the church door
• 95 points he is willing to debate about the church’s role and good deeds
 Initially, he’s struggling with good works
 Then, he questions power of church and pope
Luther's principles
o Salvation by faith
o Ultimate authority of bible
o Priesthood of all believers
How can Luther say this and get away with it?
o Technology – printing many bibles
o Before…only the priests could read the bible, so they HAD to interpret them
o At this time, he is living where people are saying – why should we be controlled by a Pope or HRE??
 Nationalists < question authority
o He had the support of the local political leader
 This leader was needed and supported by other political leaders
 So…Luther has important friends
Then what does Luther do?
• 1520 – Luther established a separate church – Lutheran church
o Believes – one truth=one church
o Says – catholic church has strayed
o 2 sacraments – special moment of connection with god
 Baptism
 Communion
o (catholic church had 7)
 Extreme unction – last rites
 Confirmation
 Communion
 Baptism
 Marriage
 Confession
 Becoming a priest
o The congregation gets to participate more
o Service in the vernacular (German)
Luther's ideas spread
early on, other Christian Humanists somewhat agreeing, but didn’t want to go to extreme of turning away from church
• His ideas appeal from lower class – they don’t have to do a good deed (they have no money)
• But – mid-1520’s – major peasant rebellion
o Very violent – against authority and church
o Luther was disgusted by the violence, says he doesn’t support it
o The peasants go back to Catholic
Why didn't people kill Luther?
o Turks in Vienna…the HRE (Carlos V) doesn’t have time to upset the nobility
o By mid-century – there are too many Lutherans to easily wipe out
o End up with – Lutheran – N. Germany and spread into Scandinavian countries
o South Germany = Catholic
Other Reform Churches
 Ulrich Zwingili – Switzerland
• 1484-1531
• In tune with Luther, except for communion
Differences: Catholic, Luther, Zwingili
o CATHOLIC
 Bread and wine become blood and body – transubstantiation
o LUTHER
 Christ is present in bread and wine…but it doesn’t turn into Christ (just essence)
o ZWINGILI
 It’s just a memorial, to remember
Other reform churches
 Martin Bucer
• 1491 – 1551
• Drawn to Luther, but works to reconcile all differences
 John Calvin
John Calvin
• 1509 – 1564
• Switzerland
• Very similar to Luther, absolute sovereignty of god (god does all work) and man is sinful – man is basically evil
• Calvin expresses pre-determination
o So – why do good works?
o He says – you need to show the world your faith = good works
o He will put in place a systematic theology, creates an organizational structure for people to follow (Luther = random development)
• Calvinism
o The basis for Presbyterianism as it spreads into England, France, Scotland, Netherlands, and North America (Puritans)
More reform churches
 Ana Baptist
• Baptism – eliminate original sin
• OK for babies – but should be baptized again as an adult – conscious choice
More reform churches
 Quakers
• Communion with god through inner choice – direct connection with God
• “friends” – original name
More reform churches
 Unitarians
• Question of trinity > “no trinity” … just… 1
More reform churches
 Anglican
• NOT a reformer religion
• Not created by people questioning religion
• Created by a king for political reasons – Henry VIII
Henry VIII
• Henry VIII inherited a lot of good stuff, war games, depleted his treasury
• Then, stuck in a marriage he doesn’t like
• Likes church for his prestige…but doesn’t want church to dominate – not, church has more money
• In the meantime, Reformation ideas entering England
• Henry believes Catholic….AGAINST Reformation
• His wife is Catherine, the Spanish Princess
• Also – has mid-life crisis
• affairs:
Henry VIII's affairs
o he has a lot of affairs, but is done with the woman after she sleeps with him
o except…one woman…he says “I love you” but she won’t sleep with him…so…he can’t get bored
o he wants a divorce from his wife to marry this new girl, but needs an excuse to give to the church
o (side note: his wife was originally married to his older brother, but he marriage was never consummated, so she could marry him)
o “I am being punished by God for marrying my brother’s wife”
o Catherine is the aunt of Carlos V, who controls the pope
o So, when Henry wants a divorce, Catherine writes to Carlos V
o So – Henry has no divorce
o Money problems getting worse
o Lets deny the authority of the pope
 Say: he has no jurisdiction in England
 So, church money goes to King
 Henry creates the Church of England – Anglican
 No change in theology
 Only change the head of church
 So – Anglican > catholic (lowercase)
 Not Roman Catholic
affairs cont.
o People thought this was reformation:
 This frustrated protestants
 Roman Catholics
 English government will be rich – this is good
o Henry gets divorced
 (Catherine never recognizes the divorce)
 He marries the girl
 He is the supreme head of the church of England
 He COULD act like the pope…but he never does anything (baptism, sacrament, etc.)
• Still like this today
 Sells the church stuff to nobility (the nobility in turn wants him to stay in power
 Henry VII marries Anne
• They have a daughter
• Henry gets bored with Anne
• It would be tacky to divorce (English law is important)
• Needs an excuse
• They accuse her of treason – chop off her head
o no proof
• He marries wife #3
o Jane
• They have a BOY!
• Jane dies in childbirth
• He says > “I will never marry again”
• Advisors want to arrange a political marriage
o Henry and a German woman
o He says: she has to be pretty
o But…he thinks she’s ugly
• She stays, but they don’t marry – acts like a sister….they actually have a good relationship
• A young girl (forced by family)
• They get married – she’s a party girl, probably had affairs
o He chops her head off
• He’s maturing
o A woman – they grew up together – they get married… she outlives him
next king?
 Next king – Son
 Anglican – Edward VI
• 1547
• Fairly young when king
• Cranmer – protestant stuff – filtering into catholic church of England
 Anglican – church of England
 Edward is a bishop, leaning protestant
 Edward dies young – no male heir
 Mary rules – Very catholic (her mom is in a nunnery)
Mary (Bloody Mary)
• 1553 – 1558 rule
• Works hard to turn clock back – 1529=pre-church of England, traditional
• Ended up marrying Phillip II (Carlos V’s son)
• Very very very very powerful
• Very very very very very very very Catholic
• Almost acts like head of church
• About 300 English protestants killed for heresy
• Has a younger stepsister (Elizabeth) – church of England
• Times that mary wanted to kill her sister
• Then, Mary dies, no heir…Elizabeth becomes queen from 1558 – 1603
Elizabeth
 Political – intrigued by politics/good at politics
 Very aware that there were advantages from being a separate church
 Didn’t want to be in politics of religious wars….stays out
 England goes back to church of England – but…not pushy
 Left Catholics and protestants alone IF they behaved
 Title: Supreme governor of the church
 Pope and Phillip force her to be Catholic
 In 1570 – she refuses and is excommunicated (she’s an enemy)
 Church of Enlgand..and its slight protestant influence go with English patriotism
What is happening with the Roman Catholics?
 We need a reform
 Church has significant reformation
 Catholic perspective= reformation is anti-pope
 So – intense focus on office of pope
 Clean up:
• Who gets to be pope? Not the richest person, not pervert
• Lots of reform in Spain – lots of interest in fixing the church
 A new order is founded – in Spain
Who founds the new order of Roman Catholics in Spain?
• 1491 – 1556
• Founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola
• The Society of Jesus – Jesuits
• St. Ignatius – sick, almost died…had a vision
• Creates Christian Knights who serve the Virgin Mary
• (preserving Roman Catholicism)
• Jesuits – missionaries, explorers
• Spread Catholicism – forcefully
• Contribute to slave trade – OK to enslave non-Christians
• So – Catholics growing worldwide
In Catholic church - Council of Trent
– look at issues and do reform
o 1545-1563
o 5 major pieces that come out
 1. salvation is achieved by faith and good works
 2. religious authority = the bible and traditions as interpreted by the church
 3. Re-establish supremacy of the pope – at top
 4. dealt with financial and administrative abuses
 5. address censorship – the reformation is a product of uncensored work
• The church will issue a list of banned books
JAPAN
 Japan considered backwards/primitive
 522 – Buddhist influence
 Has emperor – but real power is in hands of land owners
 1200-1600 > a series of devastating civil wars
• 1275 – when Mongols invade, the leadership of Japan is very weak
• Feudal type of government – just trying to get more land
• Person who wins – title = Shogun
o The top member of military family that wins
o (never gets rid of emperor…emperor is ceremonial/religious)
• After civil wars – 300 years of peace
• Feudal society – dominant leader is Shogun
• During this time period that Portuguese explore/missionaries appear in Japan
• 1639 – refuse foreigners access
o Can’t keep totally out – japan says; only the Dutch can come in and only into the Port of Nagasaki
 (the Dutch can’t spread religion…and everything is contained in the Port)
o This changes in 1853 – Perry, an American
1492
Columbus
Expulsion of Jews and the Moors
1417
Schism is healed
1589
Rus=Orthodox church created
1494-1516
Italian Wars
October 31, 1517
Martin Luther (95 Theses)