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56 Cards in this Set

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Columbus first meeting with Native Americans began a recurring cycle of _________ across the Western Hemisphere.
encounter, conquest & death
Spanish who came to America "to serve God and his Majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to do."
Conquistadors
Conquistador who conquered Aztec Mexico for Spain.
Hernan Cortes
Empire that ruled Mexico before Spanish invasion.
Aztec
Ruler of Aztec Empire at time of Spanish invasion.
Moctezuma
Spanish advantage in fighting Aztecs & Incas.
horses and guns
Conquistador who conquered Peru's Inca Empire.
Francisco Pizarro
Empire in Peru conquered by Spanish.
Inca
Included islands in the West Indies, Central, America, Mexico, much of South America, and parts of present day U.S.
Spanish American Empire
Spain's two goals for American empire.
exploit its wealth & convert native Americans to Christianity
Gave Conquistadors the right to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans in a particular area. (granted by Spanish monarch)
Encomienda
European weapon that killed (by far) the most native Americans.
disease
Most valuable exports from Spanish colonies.
gold & silver
Representatives appointed by the Spanish Monarch who ruled in his name.
viceroys
In the 1600s American colonies based their economies on agricultural products that required ____________.
intensive labor.
At his insistence the crown did pass laws against the enslavement and mistreatment of Native Americans.
Las Casas
Native Americans who labored to pay impossible debts created by landlords.
Peons
To meet the intensive labor demands in the American colonies, plantation owner's used _______.
Enslaved Africans
People born in Europe filled the highest positions in Spanish Colonial government.
Peninsulares
American born descendents of Spanish settlers, second highest on social scale.
Creoles
People of mixed European and Native American descent.
Mestizos
People of mixed European & African descent.
Mulattoes
Mestizos & Mulattoes were the third rung of the colonial __________.
social scale
In the 1600s the French, Dutch, English and Spanish all competed for lands in _________.
North America
By the 1700 North America was dominated by __.
France & England
Explored much of Eastern Canada and claimed it for France.
Jacques Cartier
First permanent French settlement in North America, established in 1608.
Quebec
Most of their colonists were involved in fur trapping, fur trading and fishing.
French
In the early 1700s New France's population remained __________.
small
First permanent English colony established in 1607.
Jamestown
English protestants who settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts, because the rejected the Church of England.
Pilgrims
Agreement reached for governing the Plymouth colony.
Mayflower compact
War between France and England that started in the colonies and spread to the rest of the world where it became know as the Seven Years war.
French & Indian War
Ended the French & Indian war in 1763 and gave the British much of French territory in North America.
Treaty of Paris.
The slave trade was part of the ___________.
triangular trade
The trading pattern that developed among the American colonies, the West Indies, the coast of Africa, and the British isles.
triangular trade
Left their home ports carrying manufactured goods.
European ships
In West Africa ships captains exchanged their goods with local rulers for _________.
enslaved people
Enslaved Africans were sold in the colonies and the money was used to buy _________.
sugar, molasses, cotton and tobacco.
Ships returned to Europe to sell the goods _____________.
purchased in America
The transportation of African people to slave markets in the Americas.
Middle Passage
During the middle passage many Africans died of ________.
suffocation and disease
Many Africans resisted their enslavement by __________.
fleeing or rebellion
In the West Indies and some other areas the enslaved population came to outnumber the ___.
free population
In areas where the slave populations out numbered the free population the free population lived in constant fear of
slave uprisings
An economic system of private ownership of business that arose as a result of the price revolution.
capitalism
People who took financial risks and were the key to the rise of capitalism.
entrepreneurs
Fierce competition for trade and empires led to a new economic system called_____________.
Mercantilism
Theory that a nation's power depended upon its wealth (Gold & Silver Reserves.
Mercantilism
According to mercantilism a nation should increase its supply of gold and silver by carrying on a _____________.
favorable balance of trade
More exports than imports.
favorable balance of trade
In the mercantilist system colonies helped a country maintain a __________.
favorable balance of trade.
The enormous widespread exchange of agricultural goods, livestock, slave labor, communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres that occurred after 1492.
Columbian exchange
The Columbian exchange transformed European, American, African & Asian _____.
ways of life
Tobacco, potatoes, and tomatoes moved from the _______________.
Western to Eastern hemisphere
The horse and other livestock moved from the __________.
Eastern to Western hemisphere