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92 Cards in this Set

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During this time period much of the classical culture of Greece & Rome was lost in Western Europe
Middle Ages
Rebirth of classical ideas of Greece & Rome.
Renaissance
Time of great artistic and intellectual creativity.
Renaissance
Marked the transition from Medieval to Modern Times.
Renaissance
Birthplace of the Renaissance.
Italian City-States (Florence was first)
The Renaissance began in Northern Italy about ________. (date)
A.D. 1300
The Renaissance peaked around __________.
A.D. 1500
Thought system of the Renaissance.
Humanism
Emphasized human worth and the importance of the individual. (ideology)
Humanism
Focused more on life in this world than on the afterlife.
Humanists
Powerful banking family that ruled Florence.
Medici
The support of the Medici family helped Florence produce many _________.
artists and scholars
"Father of Humanism"
Petrarch
Assembled a library of ancient Greek & Roman Manuscripts.
Petrarch
Author of The Prince.
Machiavelli
The ends justifies the means in political actions. (book)
The Prince
Was a guide to rulers on how to gain and keep political power often by ruthless means.
The Prince
Renaissance art differed from Medieval art in that it portrayed non-religious subjects and was _________.
more realistic
A man talented in many areas.
"Renaissance Man"
The best example of the "Renaissance Man."
Leonardo da Vinci
In addition to his paintings like "The Last Supper" he drew sketches of flying machines.
Leonardo da Vinci
Commissioned by the Pope to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
Michelangelo
A "melancholy genius" who was a sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet.
Michelangelo
While the Renaissance was flowering in Italy Northern Europe was recovering from the____.
Black Death
Killed nearly half the people of Western Europe in the 14th century.
Black Death
The Renaissance in Northern Europe was more ____.
Religious in nature
The Northern Renaissance began in _________.
Flanders
Renaissance writers who wanted to reform the Church.
Christian Humanists
Criticized society by comparing it to an ideal society. (book)
Utopia
Author of Utopia.
Thomas More
He was executed because he would not accept Henry VIII as the head of the Church of England.
Thomas More
Erasmus and Thomas Moore were _______.
Christian Humanists
Renaissance writers often wrote in the ______.
Vernacular
Language of the common people.
Vernacular
Priest who wanted the common man to be able to read the scripture and fought corruption in the Church.
Erasmus
"Leonardo of the North" his engravings often portrayed religious upheaval.
Albrecht Durer
His plays often explored the complexity of the individual.
Shakespeare
None
Helped spread the ideas of both the Renaissance and the Reformation. (Invention)
Printing Press
Inventor of the Printing Press.
Johann Gutenberg
Founder of the Protestant Reformation.
Martin Luther
Broke with the Catholic church over salvation by faith.
Martin Luther
Christians became divided as Catholics and Protestants.
Reformation
Freed the owner of time in Purgatory/were granted by the Church.
indulgences
Place of suffering where people are purified of sins before going to heaven.
Purgatory
Authorized the sale of indulgences.
Pope Leo X
To finance Renaissance projects in Rome Pope Leo X authorized the sale of ___________.
indulgences
Issue that actually brought Luther in conflict with the Roman Catholic church.
sale of indulgences
Luther's criticism of the sale of indulgences. (Document).
95 Theses
Ninety-five Theses nailed to Church in____. (date).
A.D. 1517
One is saved solely by trusting Christ.
Justification by Faith
Luther's basic belief.
Justification by Faith
Luther believed it was the only authority for Christian life.
Bible
Council condemns Luther as heretic and outlaw.
Diet of Worms
Excommunicated Luther (person)
Pope Leo X
Holy Roman Emperor/called Diet of Worms/ fought against Protestantism.
Charles V
Encouraged by Luther's idea of Christian freedom Peasants demanded an end to serfdom and ______________.
revolted
With Luther's support the Nobles brutally suppressed the ______________.
Peasant revolt
Those who broke away from the Catholic Church.
Protestants
Name originally referred to the princes who refused to join the pope against Luther, eventually comes to refer to all who broke with the Catholic Church.
Protestant
In Geneva Switzerland Calvin established a _______.
Theocracy
Calvin's teaching that God determines what will happen before it does, especially who will be saved. (actually before the foundations of the universe).
Predestination
Calvin was most influenced by Luther's idea that humans __________________.
cannot earn a place in heaven
One reason for the Reformation was that European merchants _____________.
resented paying taxes to the Church in Rome
Luther & others break from the Catholic Church.
Protestant Reformation
Catholic Reformation
Counter Reformation
English King broke with the pope.
Henry VIII
Henry VIII broke with the pope because he would not __________.
end his marriage
Made Henry VIII the official head of the Church of England. (1534)
Act of Supremacy
Daughter of Henry VIII tried to reinstate Catholicism.
Mary I (Mary Tudor or Bloody Mary)
Made England Protestant with some Catholic practices. (ruler)
Elizabeth I
Name of the Protestant Church of England
Anglicanism
Attempts to reform the Catholic Church and win back converts.
Counter Reformation
Agreed that the Church's interpretation of the Bible was final. (meeting)
Council of Trent
Established direction of Catholic reforms.
Council of Trent
Founder of the Jesuit Order.
Ignatius Loyola
A society of Jesus.
Jesuits
Attempted to win people back to Catholicism by education (group)
Jesuits
The Council of Trent and the formation of the Jesuits were parts of the __________.
Counter Reformation
Gave each prince the right to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism for his realm. (1555) (Holy Roman Empire) (German states)
Peace of Augsburg
Radical wing of the Reformation, believed people should be baptized only after conversion or regeneration (group).
Anabaptists
In some Italian cities Jews were forced to live in a separate part of the city called a ________.
ghetto
Sun is the center of the Solar System
Heliocentric theory
He developed the Heliocentric theory
Copernicus
He developed a telescope to support the Heliocentric theory
Galileo
Demonstrated that planets move in elllipses
Johannes Kepler
His discoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyone else's
Isaac Newton
Newton developed the theory of
Gravity
He developed calculus
Isaac Newton
Pioneer of chemistry with his concepts of elements and compounds
Robert Boyle
a step by step process of forming a hypothesis, testing it, gathering and analyzing data and repeating.
Scientific Method
Helped bring about the scientific method with his emphasis on experimentation and observation
Francis Bacon
Scientist who stressed human reasoning
Descartes