Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Taiping Rebellion (1850s and 1860s)
- A rebellion by Chinese peasants that threatened the Qing dynasty
-The Taiping offered a new vision of China that included the redistribution of land, public education, and rights for women
-Although they were successful in gaining supporters and even captured Nanjing, the rebellion ultimately ended at tremendous cost of life
-The Qing organized a powerful army and had the support of the scholar-gentry, the class most threatened by the Taiping reforms
-Although the rebellion failed, the destruction and death it caused were massive and forced the Qing to make reforms; the most well-known was called the Self-Strengthening Movement
Self-Strengthening Movement
-Following the signing of a series of unequal treaties and a number of internal rebellions in the 19th century, the Qing enacted a series of reforms
-The reforms focused on the introduction of Western technology in the hopes of modernizing the nation
-The reforms had limited success; China remained an agrarian-based society centered on traditional Confucian thought
Spheres of Influence
-An area of economic influence/control
-Established in China in the 19th century; at first foreigners took advantage of weakened China and seized control of China's tributary states(for example, France took control of Vietnam in 1885)
-Eventually Western powers including Germany and France, gained exclusive trading rights with China
-In response to the presence of foreigners in the nation, Chinese nationalism increased as evidenced by increased internal rebellions, most notably the Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
An internal rebellion led by a group known as the Boxers, who unsuccessfully sought to rid China of foreign influence
-The Boxers had imperial support for their efforts, which included attacking and killing foreigners and Chinese Christians
-Following their attempt to gain control of foreign embassies in Beijing, foreign forces moved quickly to put down the rebellion
-The defeat of the Boxers allowed foreigners to gain even more concessions from the Qing; China had to pay for damages to foreign-held property
-The rebellion further weakened the ruling family, who within a decade would be overthrown by Chinese nationalists
Monroe Doctrine
-Articulated in 1823 as a part of US foreign policy, it sought to limit European interference in the Americas
-President James Monroe regarded the Americas as a US protectorate and thus saw threats to the region as threats against the US
-The doctrine indicated that attempts by Europe to take control of land in the Americas would be viewed as a hostile act and that, in theory, the United States would respond
-Most significantly, the doctrine would provide(in later years) justification for the US to intervene in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere
Spanish American War
-In response to the destruction of a US ship in Havana's harbor and under the guise of protecting American business interests in Cuba, as well as the interest of those Cubans suffering under Spanish rule, the United States declared war on Spain
-The United States quickly defeated the Spanish and gained control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines
-The United States emerged as an imperial power
US Open Door Policy
-US foreign policy that sought equal trading rights for all nations trading in China and commercial advantages for US business
-Proposed by Secretary of State John Hay in 1899 because the United States was one of the few imperial powers that did not have a sphere of influence in China
-Although it was never formally agreed upon, the policy was unchallenged
Panama Canal
-A canal built through the Isthmus of Panama connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
-When the United States took control of the project, Panama was under Colombian control, and it failed to give its permission to build. US president Theodore Roosevelt offered Panamanian rebels the support of the US navy as an incentive to seek Panamanian independence
-In 1903, Panama declared its independence and soon granted the United States the right to build the canal in the canal zone
-The canal was completed in late 1913 and opened in 1914 and quickly became - and remains- an important commercial waterway
-In 1999, control of the canal zone reverted to the Panamanian government
Opening of Japan
-Following over 200 years of self-imposed isolation, Japan was forced to open its doors to the world following the arrival of US Commodore Matthew Perry
-In 1853, Perry arrived in Tokyo Bay and under the orders of the US president requested that Japan open up to foreign trade
-The United States wanted to find new markets following industrialization and Japan offered new economic opportunities
-The Treaty of Kanagawa,signed by the two nations, opened Japan to trade
-Japanese isolation ended; the country focuses on a new domestic policy of rapid modernization
Meiji Restoration
-After Japan ended its isolation, rebellion led to the overthrow of the shogun who was replaced by an emperor, who initiated a series of social,economic, and political reforms
-A centralized government, established with a new constitution, set up a two house system, although the emperor retained most control
-Fearful that Japan would experience the same fate as China, Meiji reformers sought to modernize the nation by selectively borrowing Western ideas
-The Japanese economy quickly industrialized with the support of the government, which built factories, railroads and banks
-Japan modernized its army and navy and improved health care and the education system
-Japan modernized quickly and by 1900 began to follow a foreign policy of empire building that would lead to conflict with neighbors in the region and establish it as a global power
Sino-Japanese War
- A war fought between China and Japan for control of Korea
-Korea became a target of Japan's expansionist policy(following rapid industrialization in the Meiji era)
- In 1894, when a rebellion led by pro-Japanese reformists broke out in Korea, the Korean government asked China to send in troops to help restore order; Japan in turn sent troops and captured the Korean emperor
-Japan's modern army quickly defeated the Chinese troops, and in April 1895 the Qing signed the Treaty of Shimonoseku
-The Qing agreed to stay out of Korea, gave up rights to parts of Manchuria, and ceded Taiwan to the Japanese
-The war was a clear indication of Japan's aspirations in Asia and a reflection of China's inability to keep pace with a fast-changing world
Russo-Japanese War
-Imperial rivalries led to armed conflict between Russia and Japan for control of parts of Korea and Manchuria
-Japan,whose imperial ambitions had begun following rapid industrialization, by the 1870s was competing with other nations for economic control and territory throughout East Asia
-Japan's victory over China surprised many and worried the Russians, who had imperial hopes of controlling Korea and Manchuria
-in 1904, Japan attacked Port Arthur, a Russian port in southern Manchuria, and then Korea
-Russia and Japan battled on both land and sea; the Japanese were victorious
-Under the Treaty of Portsmouth, Russia gave their largest island in the Pacific and their lease to Port Arthur to Japan and gave up claim to Manchuria. Korea was named a Japanese sphere of influence
-Russia's defeat in East Asia marked the first time an Eastern power had won a decisive victory over a Western one and paved the way for Japan to be the premier empire builder in Asia
Bloody Sunday
-In 1905 a peaceful demonstration at the Russian czar's winter palace in St. Petersburg turned violent when the czar's guards opened fire on the unarmed crowd
-The protesters, led by a priest, wanted to present a petition to Czar Nicholas II asking for a representative assembly; instead many of the protesters were killed
-Unrest broke out across the country, and soon soviets (local councils) were organized, seeking to organize strikes and gain political rights
-The czar responded by creating the Duma, Russia's first parliament
-The czar was able to restore some level of stability to the nation, but many lost faith in the Romanovs, and the stage was set for the end of imperial rule
Fall of the Qing
-Despite the Qing's enacting of a series of reforms in the second half of the 19th century, the signing of a number of unequal treaties and numerous internal rebellions had left the ruling family weak, and in 1911 revolution broke out in China
-Nationalism had been on the rise, and following the death of Empress Dowager Cixi, the nation was poised for revolution
-In 1912, the last Qing ruler abdicated, and Chinese nationalists called for a new government
-Sun Yat-Sen, a revolutionary leader who envisioned a China free of foreigner and based on republican rule, was poised to take control
Decline of the Ottoman Empire
-In the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire, now small, weak, and in debt, became known as the Sick Man of Europe
-Threats from Russia and Austria resulted in territorial losses
-Owing to the increasing instability, independence movements arose throughout the multinational empire
- A shift from land to sea routes hurt the Ottomans economically,as Europeans now conducted trade directly with Asia and thus cut out the Muslim middlemen
-British and French interference showed the decline:fearful that the collapse of the Ottoman empire would lead to a strengthened Russian Empire, Britain, and France lent economic support to the sultans (ie, to maintain the balance of power
-By 1900, smaller, considerably weaker, and in debt, the Ottomans launched a series of unsuccessful reforms to save the empire
Muhammad Ali
-Emerged as the ruler of Egypt following an unsuccessful invasion by Napoleon in 1798
-Although Egypt was theoretically part of the Ottoman Empire, the sultans were not strong enough to prevent Ali from establishing an autonomous state
-Evidence of the weakened state of the Ottoman Empire
-Modernized the nation by focusing on the military and industrialization
Armenian Genocide
-The massive and deliberate killing of Armenian civilians by the Ottoman Turks
- As the Ottomans attempted to reform society in hope of preventing the empire's collapse, nationalism increased
-With an increase in nationalism, the government, which historically had been tolerant of the many religious and ethnic groups living in the empire, began to distrust its citizens
- In the 1890s, the Turks targeted Christian Armenians, believing that they were supportive of Russia and no longer loyal to the empire
-Genocide ensued, and millions of Armenians were killed over a 25-year period
Mexican Revolution: causes
-discontent after decades of limited social reform led Mexicans to demand change
-After Mexico gained independence from Spain in the early 1800s, it quickly fell under the control of a series of dictators
-General Porfirio Diaz ruled Mexico in the early 1900s; although he improved the economy, socially Mexico was suffering
-Mexican nationalists, including Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa, gained support from the peasants and together with the middle class overthrew Diaz in 1911
Mexican Revolution:Results
-In 1917 Mexico adopted a new constitution that established land reform and granted rights to workers and women
-Education and healthcare were improved
-Universal suffrage was granted
-Mexican nationalism encouraged the government to take control of industry and discouraged foreign-owned businesses
Background causes of World War I
-By 1900 nationalism was a powerful global force, sometimes urging people to unite for a common purpose and at others acting to break groups up. Ethnic minorities living in the multinational empires of the Ottomans and Austria-Hungary were seeking independence
-The major industrialized nations of Europe were competing for contorl of foreign markets and access to materials and resources. Also, an arms race had emerged as these same nations sought to create the world's strongest armies
-In the late 1800s and early 1900s, in an attempt to maintain the balance of power, many nations in Europe entered into alliances for protection. The two most significant were the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria Hungary, and Italy and the Triple Entente, among Britain, Russia, and France
-Nationalism, militarism, and imperialism, combined with the new reality of entangling alliances, ensured that even the smallest crisis could lead to a war that would envelop the entire European continent
Immediate causes of World War I
The crisis sometimes referred to as the "spark" that started the war came on June 28, 1914. While on a visit to Sarajevo (in Bosnia) Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo by a Serbian nationalist. Almost immediately, Germany pledged its support to Austria-Hungary, and with Austria-Hungary's declaration of war on Serbia a month later. Russia mobilized forces against Austria-Hungary in support of Serbia. A few days later, Germany declared war on Russia and then on France. Following the German invasion of Belgium, Britain declared war on Germany and world war was well on its way.
-The "isms" of nationalism, militarism, and imperialism combined with the new reality of entangling alliances ensured that this was would involve the entire European continent.
Total War
-When all of a nation's resources are dedicated to the war effort and both civilian and military populations mobilize to defeat an enemy
-A significant consequence of total war is the purposeful targeting of civilian populations and the cities they live in
-The ability for civilians to help soldiers defeat the enemy was emphasized, and efforts were mobilized on the home front
-Raitioning, propoganda, and the increased number of women in the labor force visibly indicated the many ways in which ordinary citizens sought to contribute to victory.
-Although nations had large standing armies, conscription became essential, and by the end of World War I, more than 70 million men had been drafted
21 demands
-In 1915 Japan, at war with Germany, invaded German-held territory in one of China's provinces
-Despite China's request that Japan withdraw, Japan issued a secret ultimatum, the Twenty-one Demands, to the Chinese government in the hopes of securing control over China
-Although they did not give in to all of the demands, in large part thanks to British intervention, China ultimately agreed to many of the demands, including giving control of the Manchurian railroads to Japan
-Although Chinese control was restored in 1921, it was clear that Japan's desire to establish hegemony in Asia was a goal that they would continue to pursue
Technology of World War I
-World War I was the world's first truly modern war: new weapons of revolutionist warfare
-With the use of machine guns and heavy artillery , combatants no longer charged onto the battlefield; instead new fighting technique were developed. Trench warfare emerged. The resulting stalemate(neither side making any significant advances) led to the development of more neew weapons and strategies
-Poison gas grenades, first used by the Germans, were a great fear of soldiers in the trenches and necessitated the invention of the gas mask
-Although armored cars were used early in the war, by 916 the British used tanks to advance against German trenches
-Aerial combat was first introduced during the war, but for the most part, planes were used for reconnaissance
-Submarine warfare was the domain of the Germans, who used u-boats to destroy British naval ships
-On the civilian front Paris and other cities were bombed
-The new technology was deadly: estimates of war go as high as 10 million
Results of World War I
-Cities throughout Europe were destroyed and millions were dead, injured, or homeless.
-Although some European nations, notably France and Great Britain, emerged the victors and retained imperial control over their vast empires, in reality the process of decolonization was underway. Following the war, there was a significant increase in nationalist feelings throughout the colonial world
-The Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires were broken up
-The Allies met in Paris in 1919 to develop a peace plan; the most significant agreement was the Treaty of Versailles, negotiated between the Allies and Germany
-The League of Nations was created in the hopes of avoiding future wars although weaknesses in its design would render it essentially powerless
-President Woodrow Wilson promoted the concept of self-determination, believing that if nations had the right to choose their own governments, peace would ensure.
The result of this concept was the development of the mndate system
-Perhaps most significant, World War I ended with many nations dissatisfied, and this sense of unhappiness would ultimately play a role in the rise of World War II
Paris Peace Conbference
The Allied nations met in Paris in 1919 to settle peace terms with the Central Powers. Five treaties in all were negotiated; the most significant was the Treaty of Versailles, between the Allies and Germany
-Wilson proposed his Fourteen Points including an end to secret alliances, the promotion of free trade, decolonization, and the establishment of a League of Nations
-Other Allied leaders, most notably David Llyod George of Britain and Georges Clemenceau of France, sought to punish the losers, in particular Germany
-The negotiations resulted in agreement on several significant terms being agreed upon: the League of Nations was created; the Austro-Hungarian Empire was broken up; new nations were created from the breakup of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, including Yugoslavia and Poland; and the ottoman Empire was broken up, and its lands were put under the mandate of the French and the British
-The peace established was unstable. Within a generation, a world war was once again on the horizon and many pointed to the weakness of the Paris Peace accord
Treaty of Versailles
-The peace settlement negotiated by the Allies with Germany at the end of World War I focused on ensuring that Germany would never again be a threat to the security of Europe
-Terms included a war-guilt clause in which Germany accepted complete responsibility for the war; a significant loss of German territory, including Alsace-Lorraine, which was given to France; the establishment of the Rhineland, the border between France and Germany, as a demilitarized zone; the loss of overseas colonies; reparations; and disarmament. Germany was forbidden to have any battleships, heavy artillery, or submarines
-This peace plan was viewed by many as too harsh. In the years immediately following the war's end, Germany face economic depression
-Instability in nations also led to the rise of totalitarian government
League of Nations
-Created after World War I, the League of Nations was the first permanent international organization dedicated to maintaining peace
-The league was first suggested by US President Woodrow Wilson in an address to Congress, in which he outlined a fourteen-point peace plan at the end of World War I
-The formation of the league was one of the provision of the Treaty of Versailles, and member nations included France, Great Britain, Italy, and Japan, but not the United States
-The League sought to pressure member nations to settle disputes with diplomacy. Failure would result in economic sanctions. If sanctions did not work, theoretically, the league would respond with force -- however the league did not have a military force under its command
-The visibility of the league was put to the test following the end of World War I
-The league experienced a few successes, such as negotiating an agreement between Finland and Sweden in a dispute over the Aaland Islands, but overall it was unable to prevent war again
-The league was dissolved after World War II and replaced by the United Nations
Mandate System
- An article in the covenant of the League of Nations stated that colonies and territories needed assistance as they prepared themselves for self-government and that more advance nations would act as guides for the less experienced ones
-Influenced by the idea of self-determination, a principle originating in US President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points at the end of World War I
-Self-determination: the idea that a nation should have the right to determine its own future
-Mandates were established in the former German colonies and in territories once belonging to the Ottoman Empire
-France and Great Britain took control of most of the Middle East, including Iraq and Palestine; France gained control of Syria and Lebanon. Arab nationalists had hoped that the British and French would make good on promises independence for the former Ottoman territories
Russian Revolution (March 1917)
In february 1917, Czar Nicholas II abdicated the Russian throne and ended nearly 300 years of Romanov rule
-His abdication was the result of decades of political, social, and economic unrest exacerbated by Russia's involvment in World War I
-The provisional government struggled to maintain power as the Petrograd soviet (revolutionary council) gained increasing influence across the nation
-The reform enacted extended civil liberties, such as freedom of speech, to Russian citizens and promoted religions and ethnic tolerance but failed to address the overwhelming concerns of Russians: bread, peace, and land
October Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution)
-The second part of the Russian Revolution led by Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik Party
-Lenin, a student of Marxism, put forth the idea that the proletariat (working class) would rise up against the bourgeoisie (owners)
-In October 1917 the Bolsheviks gained control of the Petrograd soviet and overthrew the provisional government in a bloodless coup
-With the Bolsheviks in control, efforts were made to transform the political and economic landscape of the nations; Russia pulled out of World War I, and legislation was passed that redistributed land to the peasants
-Russia, renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was the world's first communist nation
V.I. Lenin
-A student of Marxism, Lenin saw in revolutionary Russia the seeds of a communist revolution
-Following the abdication of Czar Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government, he took control of the Bolshevik Party, whose members supported the ideals of communism
-In October 1917, the Bolsheviks seized control of the provisional government. The Bolsheviks, soon renamed Communists, immediately set to transforming the nation politically and economically
-Lenin pulled Russia out of World War I and began a series of land reforms
-Civil war broke out, and as a result, Lenin instituted his policy of war communism
-War communism was nationalization on a massive scale. All major businesses were put under the control of the government, the government made all the planning and production decisions, food was rationed, and private ownership of businesses was prohibited
-When civil war ended, war communism was replaced by the New Economic Policy (NEP)
New Economic Policy
-Introduced to the USSR by V.I. Lenin, the policy provided limited private business
-Replaced war communism, a policy of nationalization that had limited success
-Lenin allowed limited capitalistic ventures largely in response to global depression; his goal was a quickened economic recovery
-Major industries such as banking and communications were under state control, but small-sale industry was allowed, and peasants were permitted to sell their surplus products
-The NEP had limited success; for example, peasants had incentive to work harder but were still constrained by outdated farming technologies
-Ultimately Joseph Stalin introduced new economic reforms that allowed the government more control of economic decision and discouraged competition
War Communism
-Nationalization on a massive scale
-All major businesses were put under the control of the government, the government makes all planning and production decisions, food is rationed, and private ownership of businesses is prohibited
-Implemented by Lenin in Russia
Age of Anxiety
-The period after World War I when doubt was cast upon previously existing ways of life
-Feelings of uncertainty and doubt were reflected in science, art, architecture, and psychology
-Novelists, such as Ernest Hemingway, wrote about the destruction of war
-Pablo Picasso and other artists, experimenting with new art forms, moved away from realism and toward freer forms of expression
-In the field of psychology, Sigmund Freud and others questioned traditional thinking on morality and values, and developed new approaches to explaining human behavior
Great Depression
-In 1929 economic depression spread across the world as the US stock market crashed and European countries struggled to rebuild their damaged postwar economies
- Both during and after World War I, the United States lent millions of dollars to other nations and thus became the banking capital of the world
-After World War I, nations struggled to repay their debts; domestic policies, especially in the United States, created tariffs that limited the economic growth of debtor nations
-Surpluses in agriculture and industry led to overproduction and falling prices
-In October 1929, speculation that stocks were being overvalued led to a crash of the market; a global depression ensued as banks in the United States and Europe closed and millions of individuals were forced into bankruptcy
-The drastic slowdown in economic activity led to tremendous instability, and in nations that were already struggling with establishing new political identities, extreme forms of government emerged
New Deal
-In response to the Great Depression, President Franklin Roosevelt proposed legislation aimed at economic recovery
-Laws essentially fell under one of three categories: relief, recovery, or reform
-Laws were enacted to protect the banking industry, provide jobs, guarantee a minimum wage, and to establish a social security system
-These reforms represented a significant shift in US domestic policy, highlighting the federal government's responsibility to provide for the social and economic well-being of its citizens
-Many new agencies were created to oversee the implementation of reform including the Works Progress Administration(WPA) and the Civilian Conservation Corps(CCC)
Origins of World War II
-Axis Powers: Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Japan; Allied powers:France and its empire, Great Britain and its empire, Commonwealth allies (Canada, Austailia, New Zealand), Soviet Union, China, and the United States
-In an effort to fulfill imperialist goals, Japan invaded Manchuria, in violation of the League of Nations; Japan responded to warnings by withdrawing from the League and starting a full-scale invasion of China in 1937
-Italy attacked Ethiopia, in violation of the League of Nations; little effective resistance was given to Italy
-Germany violated Treaty of Versailles by remilitarizing the Rhine and invading the Sudetenland
-Appeasement-Western democracies gave in to the demands of aggressor nations(such as Japan, Italy, and Germany) in an attempt to keep the peace. Example: Munich Conference
Rise of Fascism
-Fascism emerged in both Italy and Germany in the interwar period; both nations were faced with economic depression and in desperate need of strong leaders. Powerful dictators emerged, greatly influenced by fascist ideology
-Fascism was characterized by extreme nationalism and state control over all aspects of life
-In Italy, Benito Mussolini emphasized the state over the individual and transformed the nation into a totalitarian state
-In Germany, fascism was promoted by the National Socialist German Workers' Party, with added elements of militarism and anti-Semitism
-By the early 1930s, the Nazi Party had control over the German parliament, and by 1934 Adolph Hitler emerged as Germany's new leader
-The Nazis severely limited peoples' civil liberties, outlawed all other political parties, and took control of the police force
Adolph Hitler: Rise to Power
-Rose to power in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s
-Leader of the Nazi's, the National Socialist German Workers' Party, Hitler attempted to gain control of Germany in 1923 but was unsuccessful and was jailed
-His book, Mein Kamf, which outlined his political views, including anti-Semitic beliefs, became popular among Germany's Nazis. Nazism had broad appeal, especially with its message of restoring the nation to the greatness it had prior to World War I
-More and more Nazis won seats in parliament, and in 1933, Hitler was appointed chancellor of the nation
-He built a totalitarian state, allowing only one party, using fear and terror to silence opposition, and nationalizing businesses
-Germany experienced military and economic growth under his leadership; he created jobs and increased the standard of living
-Under his leadership, the terms of the Treaty Of Versailles were systematically ignored; he built up a military and aggressively took control of foreign lands
-The Nuremberg Laws instituted anti-Semitic policies
Adolph Hitler at war
-In the late 1930s, Europe felt compelled to respond to the aggressive actions of Hitler, who had rearmed Germany and taken control of the Rhineland and Austria
-At the 1938 Munich Conference, Hitler promised not to invade Czechoslovakia in return for the Sudetenland, and area on the German border where many German-speaking people lived (an example of appeasement)
-Europe's policy of appeasing Hitler did not work; in March 1939, Hitler took over Czechoslovakia; in September he invaded Poland, World War II was underway
-During World War II, Hitler sought to make his goal of "living space" for Germans a reality by cleansing the land he controlled of any inferior peoples
-This policy was aimed at the Jews, but millions of others were killed as well; the Holocaust saw the loss of 12 million people, more than half of them Jews
-In April 1945, as the Allies marched to Germany, Hitler took his own life
Benito Mussolini
Responsible for the establishment of the world's first fascist state
-He emerged as a dictator in postwar Italy, a nation struggling to recover from economic depression
-His promise of economic recovery and the addition of land to the Italian empire gained him popular support
-As the leader of Italy, he suspended people's civil liberties and used fear and terror to enforce his will
-In 1936 he signed the Rome-Berlin Axis with Germany and in 1940 joined World War II on the side of Germany
-Italy experienced many losses, and Mussolini was stripped of his power; Germany remained supportive of Mussolini, who was in exile in northern Italy
-In April 1945, he was captured by the Italian resistance and executed
Indian National Congress (INC): In action
-Partnered with the Muslim League to lead a mass movement to gain self-rule from Great Britain for the Indian subcontinent
-In 1919, a large group of Indians assembled in violation of a new law prohibiting such meetings. British troops opened fire on the crowd and killed hundreds. After this incident, Indians began demanding their independence
-A massive nationalist movement spread across the country headed by Mohandas Gandhi, an influential leader in the INC
-After India gained independence in 1947, some wanted the INC dissolved, but instead it became a leading political party and maintained control of India through the late 1970s
-Following independence, the two parties split when the Muslim League supported the creation of a new Muslim Nation, Pakistan
Mohandas Gandhi: early years
-An Indian nationalist leader who fought for India's independence from Great Britain
-After attending law school in London, he took a job in South Africa; his experience there working with the Indian population in their struggle against racial inequality laid the foundation for his eforts in India
-While South Africa, he adopted the practice of nonviolence(ahimsa) and created satyagraha, passive resistance, as techniques of fighting against unfair laws
-Upon his return to India, he found the Indian National Congress struggling to establish a nationwide nationalist movement aimed at gaining India's independence
Mohandas Gandhi: an Indian nationalist
-He quickly became a popular leader among the ordinary citizens of India, and the support of an extensive segment of the population made the Non-Cooperation and the Civil Disobedience movements largely successful
-Indians were urged to boycott British-made goods and protest British policies but were encouraged to avoid violent action
-Although the British responded to the actions of the Indians with violence (Amritsar Massacre, the Salt March), most Indians remained nonviolent in efforts
-In 1935 the British enacted the Government of India Act, which provided for Indian self-rule
-Gandhi continued to push for complete independence, which occurred a year before his death in 1947
-His nonviolent methods, especially civil disobedience and passive resistance, were borrowed by future leaders, including Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Chinese Civil War
-A conflict between the Kuomintang and the Communist parties
-The Qing dynasty had been overthrown in 1911, and Sun Yat-sen emerged as the leader of the new Chinese republic
-Sun Yat-sen's party the Kuomintang (the Nationalist People's Party), promoted the Three Principles of the People: nationalism, democracy, and livelihood
-In 1934 the communities retreated; during the Long March they traveled over 6000 miles before settling in northwestern China, spreading their ideas along the war
-During the Long March, Mao Zedong emerged as the leader of the communists
-During World War II, the civil war was suspended in an efoort to fight the Japanese invasion
-After World War II ended, the civil war resumed and quicklt the People's Liberation Army, the army of the Communist Party, seized control
-On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong announced the creation of the People's Republic of China, a communist nation; the Nationalists fled to nearby Taiwan
China remains a communist nation; the nationalists still continue Taiwan.
Mao Zedong
-A nationalist leader in China, he successfully defeated the Kuomintang in a civil war in large measure because of the support of the peasants
-Influenced by Marxist ideology, China became the world's largest communist nation, and Mao sought to make it a modern, industrialized nation
-The Great Leap Forward was a five-year plan aimed at increasing industrial production and agricultural output; communes and production quotas were established
-The Great Leap forward failed: quotas were not met, products were of poor quality, and little incentive existed to work hard; agricultural output actually declined
-Next Mao introduced the Cultural revolution, aimed at renewing/restoring communist loyalty following the disaster of the Great Leap Forward
-Red Guards, mostly young students trained in Marxist thought, sought out opposition to Mao and his policies. Millions in China faced humiliation, jail, and death
-Following Mao's death in 1976, a new, more moderate leader emerged
Cultural revolution
-Known as the Great Proletarina Cultural Revolution, it was launched in CHina in 1966 by Mao Zedong in order to seek out and silence opposition to Mao's leadership and his vision of communism
-Millions of people were publicly humiliated, jailed, or killed
-A common target of persecution was China's elite, the intellectuals, educators, and professionals, because of their perceived bourgeoisie leanings and foreign sympathies
-Red Guards, young Chinese men and women, were given the uthority to rid China of opposition to Mao
-Contributed to increased instability in the nation and discouraged China from advancing socially or economically
-After Mao's death in 1976, the revolution was ended, and China's next leaser, Deng Xiaoping, adopted more moderate policies in an attempt to bring stability back to the country
Joesph Stalin
Following the death of V.I. Lenin, Stalin, the "man of steel," became the totalitarian dictator of the Soviet Union
-Replaced the NEP with a five-year plan, a program initiated in 1929 and aimed at transforming the Soviet Union from an agrarian economy to a modern, industrialized nation
-Through the policy of collectivization, the government took control of land (angering many peasants, notably the kulaks) and created collective farms with the goal of improving agricultural production; a man-made famine and the deaths of millions of peasants resulted
-Faced with the limited success of his new economic policies and growing unrest, Stalin initiated what came to be known as the Great Purge, a period in which his opponents were jailed and/ or executed
-Although terror, fear, and censorship were hallmarks of his rule ( he was responsible for the deaths of millions),, he led the Soviet Union in World War II, and his efforts played a significant role in the defeat of Germany
-Victorious after World War II, he continued to lead the Soviet Union in the early stages of the Cold War
Soviet five-year plans
-An economic policy initiated by Joesph Stalin that set high quotas in an attempt to improve Soviet agricultural and industrial output
-This method of centralized planning was adopted by other communist nations, notably the People's Republic of China
-The first of the five-year plans focused on heavy industry and rapid industrialization in different areas, such as coal and iron production
-Although production quotas were not met, Stalin claimed the first of the five-year plans a success. The Soviet Union's neglect of consumer goods led to a scarcity of these products
-Overall, results were mixed, but over the course of Stalin's leadership, the Soviet Union was transformed into a leading industrialized nation
Nazi-Soviet Pact (Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact)
A nonaggression treaty signed between Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 in which the two nations publicly agreed to avoid armed conflict with one another
-Secretly, another agreement was negotiated in which Germany and the Soviet Union agreed to divide the countries of northern and eastern Europe into spheres of influence; Poland was to be divided between the two
-World War II began with Germany's invasion of western Poland, followed by the Soviet's invasion from the east; soon states in the Baltic region fell under the control of the Soviet Union as Hitler systematically gained control of nations throughout eastern Europe
-Germany violated the pact by invading the Soviet Union in June 1941 and quickly took control of the Soviet spheres of influence in Baltic countries and eastern Europe
-Ultimately, the Soviet Union was able to push back the Germans, and its goal of extending Soviet Influence across eastern Europe was realized after World War II with the creation of satellite nations