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80 Cards in this Set

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skillful military genius who led forces in france across the world. he defeated major enemy (austrians) but never got to defeat the british
napoleonic code
French civil law code established at the order of Napoleon. was first legal code and was based on the roman law
continental system
napoleon's attempt to stop britain's export and rexport trade with europe. caused great hardship in britain
where napoleon was finally defeated by the duke of wellington of england
saint helenas
where napoleon was taken after his final defeat in waterloo
scorched earth policy
during battle, leaving absolutely nothing for invaders to use after you leave your area -- russians did this to napoleon's army
where napoleon was taken for 10 months when he was captured by allied forces, but he escaped. received annual allowance from france here.
egyptian campagin
french attempt to exert influence over egypt. political need to weaken britain and personal needs of napoleon<- saw weakness in army after their struggle against austria
hundred days
hundred days napoleon tried to rule france after escaping elba
extention of one nation's power over other hands
statesman and four-time prime minister of great britain
potato famine
airborn failure of the potato crop who killed many people because they had become dependent upon this single source of nutrition
alexander II
russian tsar who issued an emancipation edict where slaves were now able to own property and marry as they choose
congress of berlin
1878- called treaty of paris by the signers
6 advances in travel and communicaton
railroad, telegraph, internal combustoin engine, automobile industy grew, steamship, flying shuttel, spinning jenny, power loom
anglo-saxons were germanic people who inhabited britain from mid 5th century. occupation of britain traditionally considered origin of modern english nation
economy characterized by the collective ownership of property and by the organization of labor for the common advantage of all members
system of social organization in which means of producing and distributing is owned collectively or by a centralized government that often plans and controls the economy
means of production and distribution are privately or corporately owned and development is proportionate to accumulation and reinvestment of profits gained in a free market
social darwinism
belief in struggle between nations, the fit are victorious and survive. superior races must dominate inferior races by military force
supporters of parliament during english civil war. referred to short hair cuts worn by some puritans
supporters of charles I in english civil war. aka royalists
john locke
english philosopher. believed laws under all things are human, natural, and divine
divine right
monarchs get right to rule directly from God. king can do no wrong since it's up to God to punish a wicked king... ought to obey the king.
maginificent palace in northern France. built by king louis XIV and was the royal residence for more than 100 years
jean-baptiste colbert
louis XIV's controller- general of all the finance administration
seven years war
involved nearly every nation in Europe. prussia/britain and austria/france fought for control of germany
wealthy landowners of prussia. members of prussian landed aristorcracy
edict of nantes
issued by henry of navarre to solve religious problems in france. catholocism was official religion and gave huguenots right to worship and be in politics
l'etat c'est moi
lous XIV: "I am the State."
peter the great
russia's first emperor and once czar of russia. one of most famous rulers in history. member of romonov dynasty
st. petersburg
major russian port and one of world's leading industrial and cultural centers
gun powder plot
conspiracy of english roman catholics to blow up parliament, king james I, his queen, and eldest son. lef by robert catesby
victor hugo
french writer who wrote don quixote
ludwig van beethoven
german composer. greatest composer of western european music tradition. revolutionary artist
industrial revolution
period during which work formally done by animal or man was now done by machine
crop rotation
planting different crops on the same land in succession to improve soil fertility and to help control insects and diseases
marie antoinette
queen of france. wife of louis XVI. unpopular because of her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to overthrow of monarchy. tried and executed by revolutionary tribunal
national assembly
third estate when it decided to write the constitution, established following the french revolution
prison of paris that fell when mob of commoners attacked it. symbol of despotism of ruling bourbon monarchy
estates general
french parliament that was composed of representatives from the 3 orders of french society
madame de pompedour
famous mistress of louis XV. publicly blamed for the seven years war and was noble patron of literature and the arts
1/10 part of one's annual income contributed voluntarily or due as tax, especially for support of clergy or church
louis XVI
king of france, husband of marie antoinette. summoned estates general but didn't grant the reforms that were demanded so the french revolution followed. executed
old regime
political, societal, and cultural schema that prevailed in france under the french monarchs before the french revolution
noblesse de la robe
"nobillity of the robe"- class of hereditary nobles who acquired their rank through holding a high state office
first estate
part of estates general that consisted of the clergy
second estate
part of estates general that consisted of the nobility and had about 300 delegates
third estate
had almost 600 delegates, most of whom were lawyers from french towns. wanted to set up constitutional government to abolish the fiscal priveleges of the church and nobillity
louis XV
king of france who lef France into the war of the austrian succession and the seven years war
presentation of a bill before it becomes a law
count mirabeau
one of greatest figures in national assembly that governed france during the early phases of the french revolution
declaration of the rights of man
one of fundamental documents of the french revolution defining a set of individual rights
civil constitution
during the french revolution, an attempt to reorganize the roman catholic church in france on a national basis. cause schism within the french church
legislative assembly
people who make or reppeal or amend laws. national parliament of france during part of the revolutionary period and during second republic
tennis court oath
oath taken by third estate in a nearby indoor tennis court that they would continue to meet until they had produced a french constitution
paper bills used in france as currency during the french revolution. increasing issuance resulted in inflation
jean paul marat
swiss born french revolutionary who led in overthrowing the girondists
committee of public safety
committee of 12 lef by max robespierre, who took control of france for a 12 month period
georges danton
french revolutionary leader and orator, often credited chief force in overthrow of monarchy and establishment of first french republic. first prez of committee of publis safety
council of elders
upper house of legislature established by constitution
madame guillotine
estimated 40,000 people traveled thru paris to die under her. got name from practice- device used to separate bodies from heads
law of maximum
regulation of prices on all goods and service during the french revolution
reign of terror
revolutionary courts were set up to protect revolutionary republic from internal enemies. consisted of executions of people thought to be threatening to government
max robespierre
dominated the committee of public safety, leader of political group known as jacobins
five member group that functioned as the executive for the gobernmental system created by the consitution
law of suspects
law that stated that anyone suspected of a crime could be arrested and possible executed for almost no reason
members of the moderate republican party during the french revolution
charlotte corday
girondist who assassinated jean paul marat
council of 500
council that was the lower house of the legislature established by the constitution
september massacres
mass killing of prisoners that took place in paris, major event called "first terror" of the french revolution
thermidorean reaction
the execution of robespierre and the reassertion of moderate power over the revolution
sans culottes
"without breeches" - people who didn't wear culotess- short pants worn by the nobles
constitution of the year III
sought to ensure a moderate continuation of the revolution by bringing equality between citizen rights and democracy
national convention
council consisting of lawyers, professionals, and property owners whose first act was to abolish monarchy and set up a republic in france
levee en masse
draft that drafted all citizens of france to work for the good and cause of the revolution
francis II
last holy roman emperor when napoleon forced the dissolution of the empire. he became the king of austria and helped defeat napoleon
french politician. louis XIV's advisor. he reformed taxes, centralized administration, improved roads and canals to encourage trade
chief minister to louis XIV. ruled while louis XIV was too young
oliver cromwell
leader of parliamentary forces (roundheads) in civil war against the supporters of the king (cavaliers/royalists)