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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
controlled spice trade
Arab and Venetian merchants
used by sailors who traveled beyond the sight of land to determine in which directon they were traveling
positions of stars and sun
enabled sailors to determine geographical direction
used to determine the altitude of the sun or other heavenly bodies
introduced the grid system of map references based on the coordinates of latitude and longitude
the best European ships that sailed the seas
the first European country to venture out on the Atlantic Ocean in search of spices and gold
not a sailor; he brought together mapmakers, mathematicians and astronomers to study navigation; sponsored many voyages
Prince Henry the Navigator
discovered the southern tip of Africa - Cape of Good Hope
Bartholomeu Dias
led four ships and pioneered a water route to India
Vasco da Gama
Spanish rulers who entered the race for Asian riches by backing the Italian Christopher Columbus
King Ferdiannd and Queen Isabella
Columbus' 3 small ships
Nina (Little Girl), Pinta and Santa Maria
where Columbus landed; visited Hispanola and Cuba; called people "Indians"
"Admiral of the Ocean, Sea, Viceroy and Governor of the Islands he hath discovered in the Indies"
suggested that Columbus had discovered a "New World"
Amerigo Vespucci
imaginary line running down the middle of the Atlantic from the North Pole to the South Pole; Spain -west; Portugal-East
Lline of Demarcation
completed the first circumnavigation of the globe
Ferdinand Magellan
circling the globe
narrow water passageway near the southern tip of South America
Strait of Magellan
calm south sea that Magellan named after going through the strait
Pacific Ocean
claimed to divide the world between Spain and Portugal
Treaty of Tordesillas
led an expedition of 13 ships to India for Portugal; controlled the Indian Ocean and colonized Brazil
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Spanish conquerors who came to Americas to "serve God and his Majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich
Spanish conquistador who landed in Mexico; killed the Aztecs and after 3 years ruled Mexico
Hernan Cortes
Spanish conquistador who invaded the Inca empire in Peru; massacred the Incas
Francisco Pizarro
"royal representatives" who ruled local provinces with the advice of councils of spanish settlers
Spain had two goals of its American empire
10 to acquire wealth 2) to convert Native Americans to Christianity
priest who tried to protect the Native Americans
Bartomome de las Casas
world's largest commercial city
Amsterdam in the Netherlands
English navigator who claimed land for the Dutch; founded the Dutch East India Company
Henry Hudson
Dutch settled where
New AMsterdam on Manhattan Island and Africa - Boers settled at the Cape of Good Hope
played only a small part in the early voyages because of conflicts and civil wars
Frend and English
French hire this Italian captain to find a Northwest Passage through American to Asia
Giovanni da Verrazano
French navigator who sailed up the St. Lawrence seaway - Montreal, Canada
Jaques Cartier
French mapmaker founded Quebec
Samule de Champlain
explored the MIsdsissippi Valley
Missionaries Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet
earliest English settlement in North AMerica - in Virginia
devoust Protestants who sought religious freedom by establishing Plymouth in MA
by the 1600's this had replaced the city and village as the basic economic unit in Europe
the nation
individuals who combined money, ideas, raw materials and labor to make goods and profits
a theory that held that a state's power depended on its wealth
gold or silver
the transfer of porducts from continent to continent brought changes in the ways of llife throughout the world
Columbian Exchange
the difference in value between what a nation imports and what it exprots over a period of time
balance of trade