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79 Cards in this Set

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Divine Right
The right to rule given by the will of God.
Balance Of Power
A plan to keep any one nation from becoming too strong
Autocrat
Ruler with absolute power.
Commonwealth
Cromwell abolished monarchy and ran England as a common wealth.
Louis XIV
Ruled from 1643-1715. He was an absolute monarch. Created whole new set of nobles and made their powers weaker. Destroyed the power of the Huguenots. Became the most powerful ruler in Europe and plunged into four wars between 1667 and 1714. Went through tremendous financial strain and accepted the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. (France)
Philip II
1588, Spain attempted to invade England but couldn't. Thus ensuring England's future as a Protestant nation.
Charles V
King of Spain and Holy Roman emperor. 1527 troops sacked and pillaged Rome forcing pope to flee.
Elizabeth I
Reigned in the last half of the 1500s.Was considered ineligible for the throne. She could only rule as a Protestant queen. She gave many the impression that she obeyed the parliament.
Absolutism
Complete control by a monarch over his or her people. Eager for order and security in the wake of religious wars many political supporters supported the centralization of government.
Absolute Monarch
Monarchs had complete, or absolute, political power over their subjects.
Versailles
A new capital built by Louis XIV and required that his nobles regularly visit the huge palace.
English Bill Of Rights
Guaranteed certain fundamental freedoms such as not being subjected to cruel and unusual punishments for a crime. Was a major step toward constitutional monarchy. Happened in England.
English Civil War
He tried to arrest 5 of his opponents England erupted into civil war. Parliamentary forces overwhelmed the royalists.
Glorious Revolution
Fearful of a catholic dynasty. Nobles and parliamentary leaders deposed James in 1688.They offered the crown to marry and protestant Dutch prince William of Orange.
Revenue
Government income used to offset government expenses.
Tariff
Attacks on goods coming into the country.
Mary Tudor
English queen who Briefly returned England to Catholicism during reign.
Mary Stuart
a queen of scotland, catholic.
Constitutional Monarchy
Political system in which powers of a ruler are limited by a constitution.
James I
strongly believed in divine right. His plan was to limit parliaments power and run England as he saw fit. He began selling titles of nobility for cash. He died in 1625.
James II
was a catholic and had little use for parliament. He had a son and a group of nobles deposed him in the glorious revolution.
Charles I (England)
1625-1649 (England). He disbanded the parliament. Imposed taxes on people on his own. Scots raised army and he summoned parliament because he didn't have money to fight. The civil war broke loose. He surrendered in 1649 and 1649 was beheaded.
Charles II
Learned a lesson that his father never did. Had to work with parliament rather than oppose it.
Cardinal Richelieu
Most important architect of absolutism in France. Desire to make France a strong power. Replaced nobles with well educated professionals. 1627 sent an army against Huguenot cities greatly reducing their power.
Czar
Emperor in Russia. (Caesar)
Huguenots
Protestants.
Ivan the Terrible
Decided to check the powers of nobles once and for all. He tried to extend his domains but failed. Died in 1584. And left a weak ruler. Brought a period of turmoil. was from Russia.
Peter the Great
Ascended Throne in 1682. Began a program of westernization. Strengthened army and defeated Sweden in 1709. 1721 gained access to Baltic Sea. Elevated army into the most powerful position in government. Despite opposition his reforms continued.Was ruler of Russia.
Ptolomy
A.D. 100 he provided a complex mathematical explanation for geocentric universe.
aristotle
Thought of earth centered or geocentric universe. Believed that knowledge could be acquired through observation by the 5 senses.
Plato
challenged Aristotelian conceptions. Insisted beyond all physical things lay invisible reality.
Pythagoras
hundreds neoplatonists argued that the universe was alive and interconnected. Everything had a soul and was part of a bigger world. they added the idea that everything in universe was made up of numbers and relationships, or ratios, between them.
Christian world view
major authority to whom scholastics looked for their view of their universe was Aristotle.
Copernicus
1500's a Polish astronomer challenged the Ptolemaic view by claiming that the earth was heliocentric. It was opening to the scientific revolution.
Heliocentric Theory
Sun Centered universe.
Geocentric Theory
Earth centered universe.
Scientific Method
Inductive plus deductive reasoning plus repeatable experiments by observation of data equals scientific method.
Galileo
Born in Pisa in 1564. Created telescope investigated the moon and found flaws. Eventually he shattered the rest of Aristotle's explanation of the universe. Discovered laws of inertia.
Newton
Born in England in 1642 discovered law of universal gravitation. Also explained the laws of motion. And developed calculus. His work reinforced Descartes's idea of a physical universe made up of matter that simply responded to mechanical laws of motion.
Deductive Reasoning
reasoning from the general to the specific.
Inductive Reasoning
reasoning from the specific to the general.
Kepler
In 1609 used math formulas to prove heliocentric theory. Discovered the planetary orbits. Developed the laws of planetary motion.
Alchemy
Used mixtures of chemicals and elements. They laid the foundations for modern chemistry. Paracelsus discovered many basic chemical processes.
Descartes
1637-Discourse on Method. "I think, therefore I am." Physical matter and thought. Fundamental shift in the European world view that separated it from other world views. Was a devout Christian. Was from France.
Leeuenhoek
1500s the Dutch scientist used a microscope to see tiny forms of life.
Bacon
rejected deductive reasoning. One should develop a mass of experimental data. His approach became known as empiricism. Wrote Novum Organum.
Locke
1600s argued that human beings had certain natural rights that could not be taken away. Human mind was a clean slate when first born. People were shaped by environment and experiences.
Hobbes
Englishman supported absolutism for practical reasons. Insisted that people had to obey the ruler no matter what, or else their natural selfishness would result in disaster for everyone.
Rosseau
"everything is good, as it comes from the hands of God; everything degenerates in the hands of man." Believed people started out good but became corrupt. The Social Contract.
Voltaire
French writer was a strong critic of the Catholic church. Expressed his frustration with the power of the church to suppress rationalism.
Natural Rights
life, liberty, and the ownership of property. (John Locke)
Jefferson
Wrote the Declaration of Independence. He wrote that all people were created equal. He denounced slavery in the declaration but was revoked later.
Declaration of Independance
proclaimed the United States of America as an independent nation.
Leviathan
animals in a ruthless "state of nature," with no laws.
Philosophes
The great thinkers of the enlightenment.
Secular
not religious.
Non-Secular
Religious.
Rational Thinking
Rationalism. Application of reason, or logical thought, to observation.
Two treatises of Government
written by Locke before the revolution. Argued that human beings had certain natural rights, that could not be taken away.
Montesquieu
believed that government should be suited to the needs and circumstances of the people. Concluded that best form of government was divided and thus provide a balance .
The Spirit of Laws
written by Montesquieu in 1748. He defined the perfect government. A government with branches, which would prevent the development of tyranny.
Candide
written by Voltaire it was a satire.
The Social Contract
Written by Rousseau said that a perfect society would be composed of free citizens who formed a government by meeting face to face. Individual would determine what the common good was, and the will of the people would become law.
Diderot
Edited Encyclopedie. Made great effort to share their knowledge with public.
Encyclopedie
Volumes of collaborative work intended to include the sum of human knowledge
Enlightened Despotism
a system of government in which absolute monarchs ruled according to enlightenment principles.
Deism
seeing God as the creator, but proceeded without divine intervention.
Salons
a gathering of social, political, and cultural elites.
Smith
philosopher who reasoned that two natural laws regulated all business and economic activity.
Laissez-Faire
"let do" believed economy should be self-regulating.
Free Enterprise
every person should be free to go into business for maximum profit.
Beccaria
denounced torture as being useless and evil. Punishment should be fit.
Frederick the Great
led Prussia to become a major European power.
wollstonecraft
1759 was born. an English writer. Believed that men and women were equal. Criticized the conditions in which women had to live.
Catherine the Great
(Russia) She made an alliance with Joseph the II of Austria.
Frederick II of Prussia
led Prussia to become a major European power.
Empirical Investigation
Scientific method as envisaged by one of its early exponents, Sir Isaac Newton, is fundamental to the investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. Scientists use observations, hypotheses, and logic to propose explanations for natural phenomena in the form of theories.
Popular Sovereignity
a government created by and subject to the rule of the people
Charles I
He famously engaged in a struggle for power with Parliament; he was an advocate of the divine right of kings. Many in England therefore feared that he was attempting to gain absolute power. There was widespread opposition to many of his actions, especially the levying of taxes without Parliament's consent.