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209 Cards in this Set

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Gov't where the power of the crown is unchecked
Absolute Monarchy
Another name for the age of Monarchs
Age of Absolutism
Strongest nation in europe during the 1500s and 1600s
Spain
was both the holy roman emperor and the kind of spain
Charles v
Dynasty of Charles v and and philip II
Hapsburg
When charles v divided his empire his son philip II became
king of spain
Strongest Monarch drugin spanish supremacy
philip II
Philip II and other absolute monarchs believed they were kings by .
divine right
The idea that royal power is granted by god
Divine right of kings
e used wealth (gold&silver) from the colonies to build the larges and strongest army in europe.
Philip II
Philip II saw spain as the defender of the .
Catholic Faith
He involved spain in wars against the enemies of catholicism.(Protestants, Muslims, etc.)
Philip II
Philip II attempted to force all non-catholics to .
convert or leave spain
Was used as a reign of terror to extract all non-catolic elements from spain.
Spanish Inquisition
This source of wealth enabled spain to become the strongest nation in europe
Philip II
Philip II sent it to invade England
Spanish Armada
It's defeat in 1588 was the beginning of spain's decline as the leading european power.
Spanish Armada
In the late 1500s, france was torn by religious conflict between .
Catholics and Huguenots
French Protestant Calvinists
Huguenots
First burbon King
Henry of Navarre/HenryIV
Established the edict nantes
Henry IV
Gave french protestants religious freedom in 1598
Edict of nantes
Real ruler during the reign of LouisXIII
Cardinal Richelieu
Involved Catholic France in the 30 years war on the Side of the protestants
Cardinal Richelieu
Was triggered by a rebellion of bohemian protestants
thirty years war
started over religion ended up over the balance of power
thirty years war
ended the 30 years war
peace of westphalia
made france the strongest country in europe
peace of westphalia
Louis XIV minister of finance
colbert
a tax on imports
Protective tariff
Sun king ruled france fromm 1643 to 1715
louis XIV
He weakened the powerr of the nobles by inviting them to live in luzury in his palace
Louis XIV
Strongest french monarch
LOUIS XIV
in 1685 Louis XIV revoked the .
Edict of nantes
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1600s
France
Small nations band together to keep a strong nation from dominating
Balance of power
War fought to keep louis XIV's grandson off the throne of spain
War of spanish succession
Ended the war of spanish succession
Treaty of utrecht
Broke french treasury and military power
War of spanish succession
Prevented the alliance of france and spain
Treaty of utrecht
His policies brought france near financial ruin and created class conflict
Louis XIV
Philips II's english rival
Elizabeth I
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603
Elizabeth I
English captains that captured spanish treasure ships and defeated the spanish armada
Sea dogs
Ruled england from 1558to 1603, last tudor monarch
Elizabeth I
First stuart monarch believed tin the divine right of kings
james I
Those who believed in the divine right of kings belieed monarchs were only answerable to .
God
Succeeded james I as king of england
Charles I
His reign ended in England' civil war
Charles I
It was fought over who should rule england: Monarch or Parliament
English civil war
Those who supported Charles I in england in the english civil war
Cavaliers
Those who supported Charles I in English Civil WAr
Roundheads
Roundheads were mainly .(religion)
Puritans
Led parliament's army to victory in English Civil War
oliver Cromwell
The english Parliament tried and executed .
Charles I
The house of commons abolished monarchy and declared england a republic called the .
commonwealth
Cromwell drove out parliament and set up a .
Military dictatorship
Name for cromwell's military dictatorship
protectorate
Cromwell's dictatorship enforced a .
Puritan moral code
Cromwell did not tolerate open worship for .
Catholics
Richard cromwell succeeded his farther as lord protector of england, but when england was tired of strict puritan ways he was deposed by a .
military coup
he was invited b parliament to come back from exile and become king
Charles II
The return of Charles II as king of England
Restoration
Restoration date
A.D. 1660
the restoration gave england a .
Constitutional monarchy
Catholic brother and successor to charles II
James II
English feared that james II would make Catholicism the .
State Rebellion
Name for the bloodless deposing of James II
Glorious Revolution
William and Mary were given joint rule of england after the Glorious Revolution but they first had accept the .
English bill of rights
The english bill of rights made sure parliament had more power than the ruler and established .
Limited Monarchy
Date of the Glorious Revolution
AD 1688
Was selected by leading german princes but in reality did not have much power
holy roman emperor
Allowed Maria Theresa to inherit the throne of austria
pragmatic sanction
Maria theresa' dynasty
hapsburg
Dynasty that ruled prussia during the Age of monarchs
Hohenzollern
Centralized Prussian gov't. made prussian army the most efficient fighting force in europe
Fredrick William I
Most powerful ruler in Prussian History
Fredrick II (the great)
he rejected the pragmatic sanction and started the war of austian succession
Fredrick II (the great)
MariaTheresa Keeps the throne of Austria, Austria loses silesia
Treaty of Aix-la-chapelle
Starts as a struggle between Austian &Prussia becomes aaa struggle betwween england and france
seven years war
name of the seven years war in america
french and indian war
In 1650 Russia was isolated and
backward country
title of the russian ruler
Czar
Czar who worked the modernize/westernize russia
peter the great
Peter the great was an
absolute Monarch
peter fought thee swedes and the turks to gain a
warm water port
peter the great built the new capital of russia
St. Petersburg
She followed the lead of peter the great in embracing western ideas and expanding russias borders
Catherine the great
Iintellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries
Enlightenment
The enlightenment celebrated the powers of
reason
Enlightenment thinkers promoted religious
toleration
Enlightenment thinkers believed all problems could be solved with
reason
The enlightenment ws prompted by the (1500s&1600s)
Scientific Revolution
Sun is the center of the solar system
Heliocentric theory
He developed the heliocentric
theory
Copernicus
He developed a telescope and supported the heliocentric theory
Galileo
probably more responsible for the development of scientific method than any other individual
Galileo Galilei
Galileo was forced to recant by the
Catholic church
Demonstrated that planets movie in ellipses/ovals
Johannes Kepler
his discoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyone elses
issac newton
he laid the foundations for the scientific theories that susquently revolutionized the world
Issac Newton
Newton developed the theory of
Gravity
newton's discovered that the universe is governed by
natural laws
newton's discoveries led people to view the universe as
mechanical
Developed calculus
Issac Newton
Hobbes, locke, and Rosseau were all considered
Social contract theorists
Because thomas hobbes believed gov'ts were created to protect people from their own selfishness, he believed they
never had the right to revolt
Form of gov't advocated by thomas hobbes
Absolute monarchy
form of gov't advocated by thomas hobbes
Absolute Monarchy
he believed people had natural rights to life liberty and property
john locke
John locke believed the foundation of gov't was a .
social contract
John locke believed that if people's natural rights were not prosecuted, they had the .
Right to revolt
john locke rote in defense of the .
glorious revolution
french thinkers of the enlightenment
Philosophes (not philosphers)
Philosophe who campaigned agaisnt intolerence.(wrote candide)
voltaire
He combined enlightenment thinking into an encyclopedia
Diderot
Banned Didrot's Encyclopedia
catholic church
Diderot was for his writings in the encyclopedia
Imprisioned
name for complete free market economy
laissez faire
He believed the bes way to prottect people's liberties was by separating the power of gov't into legislative, executive and judicial branches
Montesquieu
Criticized the enlightenment's excessive emphasis on reason, he believed people needed to rely more on emotion and instinct
Rousseau
meetings for the discussion of ideas
salons
He believed you should set aside traditional beliefs and rely on observation and experiment. Early proponent of the scientific method
Francis Bacon
He believed you should doubt everything which cannot be proved, and in the search for truth you should not with faith bt with doubt
Rene Descartes
The only thing Descartes found that he could not doubt was his
Own existence
"I think therefore i am"
Rene Descartes
doubt and question all ideas
Skepticism
A denial of the possibility of knowledge
Skepticism
Total Skeptic
David Hume
He denied that there was any logical basis for knowing that one thing caused another denied knowledge of cause and effect
David Hume
He believed that reason could not be used to explain questions of metaphysics
Immanuel kant
Tries to answer ultimate and universal questions
Metaphysics
Kant believed that things tat cannot be percieved in cannot be known
experience
John locke believed the min to be a
Tabula rasa(blank state)
Religion based on reason and natural law, the enlightenment's religion
Deism
Belief that god started the universe like a perfect clock and then left it alone
Deism
Some people reacted to the enlightenment and did not believe that could explain the universe
Reason alone
Monarchs who used their power to bring about positive political and social changes
Enlightened despots
When britain tried to tighten its control ove the colonies after the french and indian war, the colonies .
reacted
Because the american colonists believed they were being taxed without their representation and thus denied their natural rights they .
Declared their independence
Created a gov't with montesquieu's separation of powers and a federal system
U.S. Constitution
governmental power (sovereignty) is divided between a central gov't and regional govt's
Federalism
Inaugurated the liberal and democratic movements of the 19th century
French revolution
Name for frances social classes
Estates
King of france at the beginning of the french revolution
Louis XVI
First estate
Catholic Clergy
Second estate
Nobility
Bourgeoisie,artisians, and peasants
Third estate
Middle class
Bourgeoisie
Large gap between the rich and the poor, heavy tax burden on the third estate, first and second estate dont pay taxes, enlightenment ideas of freedom and equality, growth of the middle class, and widespread
Causes of the french revloution
In 1789 Louis XVI called a meeting of the for the first time in over 150 years
estates general
Louis XVI called the estates general because he need to
raise money
upper two estates wanted to vote as
estates
third estate wanted to vote as
delegates
Louis XVI refused the third estates request for a
mass meeting (voting as delegates)
the third estate declared itself to be the
national assembly
members of the national assembly swore to remain in session until a constitution as completed
tennis court oath
Ordered all three estates to negotiate in the national assembly
Louis XVI
ordered Swiss troops to paris
Louis XVI
French royal prison, attacked by parisians to defend the national assembly
Bastille
Symbolic beginning of the french revolution
storming of the Bastille
Voted to end special privileges of Nobility and clergy (old Regime)
national assembly
National assembly guaranteed freedom of speech, press, and religion. proclaimed all male citizens were equal bu not grant rights to women
"declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen."
in 1791 the national assembly created a
Limited constitutional monarchy
Working class men and women who pushed for more radical action during the french revolution
Sans-Culottes
Extreme radicals who demanded "true democracy."
jacobins
Unpopular queen of france
Marie antoinette
National assembly declared war on
austria
Seized control of assembly, removed king from office.(french revolution)
Jacobins
jacobins killed people they claimed were
counter revolutionaries
jacobin killed people they claimed were .
counter-revolution
called by radicals to rewrite french constitution
national convention
national convention abolished monarchy and declared france a
republic
convicted of treason and excuted by the national convention
Louis XVI
during the french revolution european monarchies fearing the spread of revolution to their countries
allied against france
because of threats from within, and without, the convention formed the .
committee of public safety
jacobin became the head of the
committee of public safety
robespierre
to stop counter-revolution the committee began the (500,000 people arrested, 40,000 guillotined.)
reign of terror
used by committee to deal with invading armies
mass mobilization
whole society helps to defeat enemy
mass mobilization
members of the convention turned on him because they feared fo their own safety. he was guillotined along with many of his followers
robespierre
robespierre's death ended the
reign of terror
took control of the convention after the reign of terror
bourgeoisie
conservative gov't set up by the convention after the end of the reign of terror
directory
put in command of france's armies by the directory
napoleon
seized power from the directory in a coup d' etat
napoleon
quick overthrow of gov't by a small group
coup d' etat
at first council of the french revolution napoleon assumed .
dictatorial powers
used soldiers to restore order to france
napoleon
made the law clear and consistent in france
napoleonic code
bonaparte became emperor napolean I by .
the will of the people
Napoleon expanded his empire to include most of
europe
british admiral who defeated napoleon at the battle of trafalgar
Horatio nelson
because of his defeat at the battle of trafalgar, napoleon gave up on
invading britain
napoleon tried to keep british good out of
european ports
napoleon invaded IT because IT refused to stop sellin goods to britain
Russia
Was a disaster because of winter conditons
Napoleons invasion of russia
Tactic used by russians by napoleon
Scorcedhd-earth
On retreat from russia napoleon los
4/5 of his troops
grand alliance defeats napoleon at leipzig germany
battle of nations
After the battle of nations the grand alliance took paris and exiled napoleon to
Elba
Napoleon escaped elba and upon returning to france
won widespread support
Napoleon's brief comeback
the 100 days
Napoleon's final defeat to britain and prussia
waterloo
after waterloo napoleon was exiled to
St. helena
date of waterloo
A.D. 1815
napoleon's lasting influence was that his soldiers spread the ideals of the across europe
french revolution
after the defeat of napoleon it was held to create a new balance of power t opreserve the peace
congress of vienna
leading figure at the congress of vienna
metternich