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212 Cards in this Set

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Government where the power of the crown is unchecked
absolute monarchy
another name for the age of monarchs
age of absolutism
strongest nation in europe during the 1500s and early 1600s
spain
was both the holy roman emperor and king of spain
charles V
dynasty of charles V and philip II
hapsburg
when charles V divided his empire his son philip II became _____.
king of spain
strongest monarch during spanish supremacy
philip II
philip IIi and other absolute monarchs believed they were kings by ____.
divine right
the idea that royal power is granted by god
divine right of kings
he used wealth (gold & silver) from colonies to build the largest and strongest army in europe
philip II
philip II saw spain as the defender of the _______.
catholic faith
he involved spain in wars against the enemies of catholicism.
philip II
philip II attempted to force all non-catholics to ___________.
convert or leave spain
was used as a reign of terror to extract all non-catholic elements from spain.
spanish inquisition
this source of wealth enabled spain to become the strongest nation in europe.
american colonies
philip II sent it to invade england
spanish armada
it's defeat in 1588 was the beginning of spain's decline as the leading european power
spanish armada
in the late 1500s, france was torn by religious conflict between ______.
catholics & huguenots
first bourbon king
henry of navarre/henry IV
established the edict nantes
henry IV
gave french protestants religious freedom in 1598
edict of nantes
real ruler during the reign of louis XIII
cardinal richelieu
involved catholic france in the 30 years war on the side of the protestants
cardinal richelieu
was triggered by a rebellion of bohemian protestants
thirty years war
started over religion ended up over the balance of power
thirty years war
ended the 30 years war
peace of westphalia
made france the strongest country in europe
peace of westphalia
louis XVI minister of finance
colbert
a tax on imports
protective tariff
sun king ruled france from 1643 to 1715
louis XIV
he weakened the power of nobles by inviting them to live in luxury in his palace
louis XIV
strongest french monarch
louis XVI
in 1685 louis XVI revoked the ____.
edict of nantes
strongest nation in europe during the 1600s
france
small nations band together to keep a strong nation from dominating
balance of power
war fought to keep louis XVI's grandson off the throne of spain
war of spanish succession
ended the war of spnanish succession
treaty of utrecht
french protestant cathlics
huguenots
broke french treasury and military power
war of spanish succession
prevented the alliance of france and spain
treaty of utrech
his policies brought france near financial ruin and created class conflict
louis XVI
philip II's english rival
elizabeth I
ruled england from 1558 to 1603
elizabeth I
English captains that captured spanish treasure ships and defeated the spanish armada
sea dogs
ruled england from 1558 to 1603, last tudor monarch
elizabeth I
first stuart monarch believed in the divine right of kings
james I
those who believed in the divine right of kings believed monarchs were only answerable to _____
god
succeeded james I as king of england
charles I
his reign ended in england's civil war
charles I
It was fought over who should rule england: monarch or parliament
english civil war
those who supported charles I in teh english civil war
cavaliers
those who supported parliament in the english civil war
roundheads
roundheads were mainly _____
puritans
led parliaments army to victory in the english civil war
oliver cromwell
the english parliament tried and executed
charles I
the house of commons abolished monarchy and declared england a republic called the _____
commonwealth
cromwell drove out parliament and set up a _______
military dictatorship
name for cromwells military dictatorship
protectorate
cromwells dictatorship enforced a _________
puritan moral code
cromwell did not tolerate open worship for _______
catholics
richard cromwell succeeded his father as lord protector of england, but when england tired of strict puritan ways he was deposed of by a ________
military coup
the return of charles II as king of england
restoration
restoration date
ad 1660
the restoration gave england a _________
constitutional monarchy
catholic brother and successor to charles I
James II
english feared that James II would make catholicism the ________
state religion
name for the bloodless deposing of James II
glorious revolution
william and mary were given joint rule of england after the glorious revolution but they first had to accept the _____
english bill of rights
the engish bill or rights made sure parliament had more power than the ruler and established __________
limited monarchy
date of the glorious revolution
ad 1688
was selected by leading german princes but in reality did not have much power
holy roman emperor
allowed maria theresa to inherit the throne of austria
pragmatic sanction
maria theresas dynasty
hapsburg
dynasty that ruled prussia during the age of monarchs
hohenzollern
centralized prussian government. made prussian army the most efficient fighting force in europe
frederick william I
most powerful ruler in prussian history
frederick II
he rejected the pragmatic sanction and started the war of austrian succession
frederick II
maria theresa keeps the throne of austria, austria loses silesia
treaty of aix-la-chapelle
starts as a struggle between austira and prussia becomes a struggle between england and france
seven years war
name of seven years war in america
french and indian war
in 1650 russia was an isolated and ____
backward country
title of the russian ruler
czar
czar who worked to modernize/westernize russia
peter the great
peter the great was an _________
absolute monarch
peter fought the swedes and the turks to gain a ______
warm water pot
peter the great built the new capital of russia ________
st. petersburg
she followed the lead of peter the great in embracing western ideas and expanding russias borders
catherine the great
intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries
elightenment
the enlightenment celebrated the powers of ___
reason
enlightenment thinkers promoted religious _____
toleration
enlightenment thinkers believed sought to construct government free of ____
tyranny
enlightenment thinkers sough to construct government free of ______
tyranny
enlightenment thinkers believed all problems could be solved with _______
reason
the enlightenment was prompted by the ________
scientific revolution
sun is the center of the solar system
helicentric
he developed the heliocentric theory
copernicus
he developed a telescope and supported the heliocentric theory
galileo
probably more responsible for the development of scientific method than any other individual
galileo galilei
galileo was forced to recant by the ______
catholic church
demonstrated that planets move in ellipses/ovals
johannes kepler
his discoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyone else's
isaac newton
he laid the foundations for the scientific theories that susquently revolutionized the world
isaac newton
newton discovered that the universe is governed by _____
natural laws
newton developed the theory of _____
gravity
newtons discoveries led people to view the universe as ______
mechanical
he developed calculus
isaac newton
hobbes, locke, and rousseau were all considered ______
social contract theorists
becuse thomas hobbes believed; governments were created to protect people from their own selfishness, he believed they ____
never had the right to revolt
form of government advocated by thomas hobbes
absolute monarchy
he believed people had natural rights to life, liberty, and property
john locke
john lock believed the foundation of government was a _____
social contract
john locke believed that if peoples natural were NOT protect, they had the _____
right to revolt
john lock wrote in defense of the ________
glorious revolution
french thinkers of the enlightenment
philosophes
philosophe who campaigned against intolerance
voltaire
he combined enlightenment thinking into an encyclopedia
diderot
banned diderots encyclopedia
catholic church
diderot was ____ for his writings in the encyclopedia
imprisoned
advocated a free market economy
adam smith
name for complete free market economy
laissez faire
he believed the best way to protect peoples liberties was by separating the power of government into legislative, executive and judicial branches
montesquieu
criticized the enlightment's excessive emphasis on reason, he believed people needed to rely more on emotion and instinct
rousseau
meetings for the discussion of ideas
salons
he believed you should set aside traditional beliefs and rely on observation and experiment. Early proponent of the scientific method
francis bacon
he believed you hsould doubt everything which cannot be proven and in the serach for truth you should start NOT with faith but doubt
rene descartes
the only thing descartes found that he could not doubt was his _____
own existence
"I think therefore i am"
rene descartes
doubt and question all ideas
skepticism
a denial of the possiblilty of knowledge
skepticism
total skeptic
david hume
he denied that there was any logical basis for knowing that one thing caused another. Denied knowledge of cause and effect
david hume
he believed that reason could NOT be used to explain questions of metaphysics
immanuel kant
tires to answer ultimate and universal questions
metaphysics
kant believed that things that cannot be perceived in _____ cannot be known
experience
john locke believed the mind to be a _______
tabula rasa (blank state)
religion based on reason and natural law, the enlightenment's religion
deism
belief that god started the universe like a perfect clock and then left it alone
deism
reacted to the enlightenment and did not believe that ______ could explain the universe
reason alone
monarchs who used their power to bring about positive political and social changes
enlightened despots
when britain tried to tighten its contorl over the colonies after the french and indian war, the colonies _____
reacted
because the american colonists believed they were being taxed without thier representation and thus denied their natural rights they _____
declared their independance
created a government with montesquieus separation of powers and a federal system
US constitution
governmental power is divided between a central government and regional governments
federalism
inaugurated the liberal and democratic movements of the 19th century
french revolution
name for france's social classes
estates
king of france at the beginning of the french revolution
louis XVI
first estate
catholic clergy
second estate
nobility
bourgeoisie, artisans, and peasants
third estate
middle class
bourgeoisie
large gap between the rich and the poor, heavy tax burden on the third estate, first and second estate dont pay taxes, enlightenment ideas of freedom and equality, growth of the middle class, and wide spread
causes of the french revolution
in 1789 louis XVI called a meeting of the ______ for the first time in over 150 years
estates general
louis XVI called the estates general because he needed to _______
raise money
upper two estates wanted to vote as ______
delegates
louis XVI refused the third estates request for a ______
mass meeting
the third estate declared itself to be the _____
national convention
members of the national assembly swore to remain in session until a constitution was completed
tennis court oath
ordered all three estates to negotiate in the national assembly
louis XVI
the third estate declared itself to be the _______
national convention
members of the national assembly swore to remain in session until a constitution was completed
tennis court oath
ordered all three estates to negotiate in the national assembly
louis XVI
ordered swiss troops to paris
louis XVI
french royal prison, attacked by parisians to defend the national assembly
bastille
symbolic beginning of the french revolution
storming of the bastille
voted to end special privileges of nobility and clergy
national assembly
national assembly guaranteed freedom of speech, press, and religion. proclaimed all male citizens were equal but did not grant rights to women
:declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen"
in 1791 the national assembly created a ___
limited constitutional monarchy
working-class men and women who pushed for more radical action during the french revolution
sans-culottes
extreme radicals who demanded "true democracy"
jacobins
unpopular queen of france
marie antoinette
national assembly declared was on _____
austria
seized control of assembly, removed king from office
jacobins
jacobins killed people they claimed were _____
counter-revolutionaries
called radicals to rewrite french constitution
national convention
national convention abolished monarchy and declared france a ______
republic
convicted of treason and exectued by the national convention
louis XVI
during the french revolution european monarchies fearing the spread of revolution to their countries
allied against france
because of threats from within, and without, the convention formed the _______
committee of public safety
jacobin became the head of the committee of public safety
robespierre
to stop counter-revolution the committee began the ______
reign of terror
used by committee to deal with invading armies
mass moblization
whole society helps defeat enemy
mass moblization
members of the convention turned on him because they feared for their own safety. he was guillotined along with many other of his followers
robespierre
robespierres death ended the _____
reign of terror
took control of the convention after the reign of terror
bourgeoisie
conservation government set up by the convention after the end of the reign of terror
directory
put in command of frances armies by the directory
napoleon
seized power from the directory in a coup d' etat
napoleon
quick overthrow of the govt by a small group
coup d' etat
as first consul of the french republic napoleon assumed ____
dictatorial powers
convicted of treason and exectued by the national convention
louis XVI
during the french revolution european monarchies fearing the spread of revolution to their countries
allied against france
because of threats from within, and without, the convention formed the _______
committee of public safety
jacobin became the head of the committee of public safety
robespierre
to stop counter-revolution the committee began the ______
reign of terror
used by committee to deal with invading armies
mass moblization
whole society helps defeat enemy
mass moblization
members of the convention turned on him because they feared for their own safety. he was guillotined along with many other of his followers
robespierre
robespierres death ended the _____
reign of terror
took control of the convention after the reign of terror
bourgeoisie
conservation government set up by the convention after the end of the reign of terror
directory
put in command of frances armies by the directory
napoleon
seized power from the directory in a coup d' etat
napoleon
quick overthrow of the govt by a small group
coup d' etat
as first consul of the french republic napoleon assumed ____
dictatorial powers
used soldiers to restore the order to france
napoleon
made the law clear and consistent in france
napoleonic code
bonaparte became emperor napoleon I by _____
the will of the people
napoleon expanded his empire to include most of ______
europe
british admiral who defeated napoleon at the battle of trafalgar
horatio nelson
because of his defeat at the battle of trafalgar, napoleon gave up on _____
invading britain
napoleon tried to keep british good out of _____
eruopean ports