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576 Cards in this Set

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Government where the power of the crown is unchecked.
Absolute Monarchy
Another name for the Age of Monarchs.
Age of Absolutism.
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1500s and early 1600s.
Spain
Was both the Holy Roman Emperor and the king of Spain.
Charles V
Dynasty of Charles V and Philip II.
Hapsburg
When Charles V divided his empire his son Phillip II became _________.
King of Spain
Strongest monarch during Spanish supremacy
Philip II
He used wealth (gold & silver) from colonies to build the largest and strongest army in Europe.
Philip II
Philip II saw Spain as the defender of the __________.
Catholic Faith
He involved Spain in wars against the enemies of Catholicism. (Protestants, Muslims etc.)
Philip II
Philip II attempted to force all non-Catholics to ________________.
convert or leave Spain
Was used as a reign of terror to extract all non-catholic elements from Spain.
Spanish Inquisition
Jews in Spain who had been baptized to escape persecution.
Marranos
Muslims in Spain who had converted to escape persecution.
Moriscos
This source of wealth enabled Spain to become the strongest nation in Europe.
American Colonies
Philip II unsuccessfully tried to crush a revolt in the Protestant _____________.
Dutch Netherlands
Came to power after his victory in the Wars of the Roses.
Henry VII
First Tudor Monarch.
Henry VII
Monarchs became more powerful as ______.
Nobles became weaker.
English monarchs were not _______.
absolute in their rule.
English monarchs did increase their power by __________.
avoiding war.
English monarch who broke with the Catholic Church.
Henry VIII
Monarch who brought Protestant doctrines into English Church.
Edward VI
Monarch that restored Catholicism to England.
Mary I (Bloody Mary)
Philip II's English rival.
Elizabeth I
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603.
Elizabeth I
English captains that captured Spanish Treasure ships.
Sea Dogs
In the conflict between Protestants & Catholics Elizabeth I took a ___________.
moderate position
Plotted to overthrow Elizabeth I
Mary Stuart (Queen of Scots)
Had Mary Queen of Scots executed.
Elizabeth I
Aided Dutch Protestants in their revolt against Spain.
Elizabeth I
Sent by Philip II to defeat England.
Spanish Armada
Defeated the Spanish Armada (big upset)
Sea Dogs
Defeat of the Spanish Armada (date)
A.D. 1588
The beginning of Spanish decline and the rise of England was the _____.
defeat of the Armada
They wished to eliminate Catholic practices in the Church of England.
Puritans
It struggled with Elizabeth I for control of England.
Parliament
They were a minority in the English population and opposed Elizabeth I in Parliament.
Puritans
England's Golden Age.
Elizabethan Era
Leading figure of England's Golden Age of Literature.
William Shakespeare
Succeeded Elizabeth I
James I
First Stuart King
James I
James I believed kings were answerable _____.
only to God
James I commissioned the writing of the _____.
King James Bible
Succeeded James I
Charles I
Charles I tried to strengthen the monarchy by repeatedly _____.
dissolving Parliament
Parliament and English kings fought over_____.
religion and money
The idea that royal power is granted by God.
Divine Right of Kings
His reign ended in England's civil war
Charles I
It was fought over who should rule England: Monarch or Parliament.
English Civil War
Those who supported Charles I in the English Civil War
Cavaliers
Those who supported Parliament in the English Civil War
Roundheads
Roundheads were mainly _____.(religion)
Puritans
Led the Puritan army to victory in the English Civil War.
Oliver Cromwell
After the English Civil war parliament tried to ______.
dissolve the army
After refusing to dissolve the English army _______.
purged parliament
English parliament after the purge.
Rump Parliament
The Rump Parliament tried and executed _________.
Charles I
Cromwell drove out the Rump Parliament and set up a ________.
military dictatorship
Name for Cromwell's military dictatorship
Protectorate
Cromwell's dictatorship enforced a _______.
Puritan moral Code
Cromwell brutally suppressed a rebellion in___.
Ireland
Succeeded his father as Lord Protector of England.
Richard Cromwell
Richard Cromwell was deposed by a ________.
Military coup
He was invited by Parliament to come back from exile and become king.
Charles II
The return of Charles II as King of England
Restoration
Restoration date
A.D. 1660
The Restoration gave England a ______.
Constitutional monarchy
A monarchy limited by a constitution.
Constitutional Monarchy
Time of reaction to Puritan rule.
Restoration period
Brother and successor to Charles II.
James II
James II's religion
Catholic
Party OPPOSED to James II's succession to the throne
Whigs
Party that SUPPORTED James II's succession to the throne
Tories
English feared that James II would make Catholicism the _______.
State Religion
The Whigs and the Tories invited him to overthrow James II.
William of Orange
Gave up his throne and fled England without a fight
James II
Name for the bloodless deposing of James II.
Glorious Revolution
Ruled England as joint rulers after the Glorious Revolution.
William and Mary
Date of the Glorious Revolution
AD 1688
He believed governments were created to protect people from their own selfishness.
Thomas Hobbes
He did NOT believe people ever had the right to revolt.
Thomas Hobbes
Form of government advocated by Thomas Hobbes.
Absolute Monarchy
Theory used to justify Absolute rule prior to Hobbes.
Divine Right
He believed people had Natural Rights to life, liberty, and property.
John Locke
John Locke believed that if people's natural rights were not protected they had the ______.
right to revolt
First Bourbon King
Henry of Navarre/Henry IV
Established the Edict Nantes
Henry IV
Real Ruler during the reign of Louis XIII
Cardinal Richelieu
Involved Catholic France in the 30 years war on the side of the protestants.
Cardinal Richelieu
Was triggered by a rebellion of Czech protestants.
Thirty Years War
Started over religion ended up over the balance of power.
Thirty Years War
Ended the 30 years war.
Treaty of Westphalia
Made France the strongest country in Europe
Treaty of Westphalia
Defacto ruler of France during the early reign of Louis XIV
Mazarin
Louis XIV Minister of Finance
Colbert
Belief that a nation's wealth was determined by the amount of gold and silver in its treasury.
Mercantilism
Greater exports than imports
favorable balance of trade
Economic philosophy of the 16th to 18th centuries.
Mercantilism
A tax on imports
Protective tariff
Sun King
Louis XIV
Ruled France from 1643 to 1715
Louis XIV
He weakened the power of the nobles by inviting them to live in Luxury in his palace.
Louis XIV
Strongest French Monarch
Louis XIV
Gave French Protestants religious freedom in 1598.
Edict of Nantes
In 1685 Louis XIV revoked the _______.
Edict of Nantes
When it was revoked many skilled workers left France.
Edict of Nantes
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1600's
France
Small nations band together to keep a strong nation from dominating.
Balance of Power
War fought to Keep Louis XIV's grandson off the throne of Spain
War of Spanish Succession
Ended the War of Spanish Succession
Treaty of Utrecht
Broke French Treasury and military power
War of Spanish Succession
Prevented the alliance of France and Spain
Treaty of Utrecht
His policies brought France near financial ruin and created class conflict
Louis XIV
In 1650 Russia was an isolated and _________.
backward country
Title of the Russian ruler.
Czar
Czar who worked to modernize Russia
Peter the Great
Peter the Great was an ________.
absolute monarch
Peter fought the Swedes and the Turks to gain a ________.
warm water port
Peter the Great built the new capital of Russia_______.
St. Petersburg
Convinced European Monarchs to accept the Pragmatic Sanction
Charles VI
Allowed Maria Theresa to inherit the Throne of Austria
Pragmatic Sanction
Carried Tax Burden during the reign of Louis XIV.
Poor
Dynasty that ruled Prussia during the Age of Monarchs.
Hohenzollern
Elector of Brandenburg, builds strong standing army, forms an alliance with the Junkers.
Frederick William the Great Elector
Hohenzollern formula for success
Build a stronger army
Prussian Nobles
Junkers
First to be called King of Prussia
Frederick the First
Centralized Prussian Government. Made Prussian army the most efficient fighting force in Europe.
Frederick William I
Sergeant King
Frederick William I
Most powerful ruler in Prussian History
Frederick the Great
He rejected the Pragmatic Sanction and started the war of Austrian Succession
Frederick the Great
Ended the War of Austrian succession
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Maria Theresa keeps the throne of Austria, Austria loses Silesia.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Austria switches from an alliance with England to an alliance with France and Russia.
Diplomatic Revolution
Pulled off the Diplomatic Revolution.
Maria Theresa
Starts as a struggle between Austria & Prussia becomes a struggle between England & France.
Seven Years War
Name of the Seven Years war in America
French and Indian War
Ended the Seven Years War.
Treaty of Paris
Gained most French Colonial lands in North America from the Treaty of Paris
England
Date of the Treaty of Paris
AD 1763
Intellectual movembent of the 17th & 18th centuries.
Enlightenment
The Enlightenment celebrated the powers of ______.
Human Reason
Enlightenment thinkers promoted religious ____________.
toleration
Enlightenment thinkers soghtoconstruct government free of_____________.
tyranny
Enlightenment thinkers believed all problem could be solved with__________.
reason
The Enlightenment was prompted b the __________.
Scientific Revolution
Sun is the center of the Solar System.
Helicentric theory
He devoloped the Heliocentric theory.
Copernicus
He developed a telescope and supported the Helicentric theory.
Galileo
Probably more responsible for the development of scientific method than an other individual.
Galileo Galilei
Galileo was forced to recant by the ____________.
Catholic Church
Demonstrated that planets move in ellipses/ovals.
Johannes Kepler
His discoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyone else's
Isaac Newton
He laid the foundations for the scientific theories that susquently revolutionized the world
Isaac Newton
Newtn developed the theory of ____________.
Gravity
Newton discovered that the universe is governed by__________.
natural laws
Newton's discoveries led people o view the universe as _________.
mechanical
he developed Calculus.
Isaac Newton
Hobbes, Locke& Rousseau were all considered _________.
social contract theorists
He believed governments were created to protect people from their own selfishness.
Thomas Hobbes
He did not believe people ever had the right to revolt.
Thomas Hobbes
He believed human nature was characterized by violence and disorder.
Thomas Hobbes
Form of Gorernment advocated by Thomas Hobbes.
Absolute Monarchy
He believed people had Natural Rights to life, liberty and property.
John Locke
John Locke believed the foundation of Government was a __________.
Social Contract
John Locke Believed that if people's natural rights were not protected they had the_________.
Right to revolt
First writer to put together in coheent form the basic ideas of constitutional democracy.
John Locke
John Locke wrote in defense of the___________.
Glorious Revolution
French Thinkers of the enlightenment.
Philosophes(not philosophers)
Philosophe who campaigned against intolerance.
Voltaire
Wrote Candide.
Voltaire
French auther: the apostle of freethinking and liberalism.
Voltaire
He combined enlightenment thinking into an Encyclopdia.
Diderot
Banned Diderot's Encyclopedia.
Catholic Church
Diderot was _________ for iswritings in the Encyclopedia.
imprisoned
Advocated a free market economy in the Wealth of Nations.
Adam Smith
Leading figure in the development of Economic Theory.
Adam Smith
Name for complete free market economy (leave it alone).
Laissez
He advocated a complete separation of powers.
Montesquieu
Influenced the writing of the American Constitution
Montesquieu
He believed the best way to protect people's liberties was by separating the power of government int legislative, executive and judicial branches.
Montesquieu
He argues that freedom is the birthright of all humans.
Rousseau
Criticized the enlightenment's excessive emphasis on reason.
Rousseau
He believed people needed to rely more on emotion and instinct
Rousseau
Author whose writings are said to have been a significant factor in the rise of socialism, nationalism, romanticism, totalitarianism and anti-rationalism.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Meetings for the discussion of ideas.
Salons
He believed you should set aside traditional beliefs and rely on observation and experiment.
Francis Bacon
He was an early proponent of the scientific method.
Francis Bacon
First greeat philosopher to realize that science and technology could transform the world.
Francis Bacon
He believed you should doubt everything which cannont be proved.
Rene Descartes
Descarted believed in a search for truth one should start with faith, but with___________.
doubt
The only thing Descartes found that he could not doubt was his ________.
own existence
"I think therefore I am."
Rene Descartes
He was the first to place tat the center of philosophy the question: "How do I know"?
Rene Descartes
Doubt and question all ideas.
Skepticism
A denial of the possibility of knowledge
Skepticism
The skeptic sees all truth as being based on _______.
Presuppositions(assumptions)
Presuppositions/assumptions by nature can't be ___________.
Proved
He questioned value of human reason.
David Hume
Total skeptic.
David Hume
He denied that there was any logical basis for knowing that one thing caused another. Denied knowledge of cause & effect.
David Hume
He concluded that there was no necessary connections between any two events in the universe.
David Hume
He believed that reason could not be used to explain questions of metaphysics.
Immanuel Kant
Tries to answer ultimate and universal questions.
Metaphysics
Kant believed that things that cannot be perceived in ________ cannot be known.
experience
"Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it become a universal law."(only do that which you would be willing to make a universl law.)
Categorical Imperative
developed the Categorical Imperative as a guide for ethics
Immanuel Kant
The study of knowledge. (How we know?)
Epistemology
Study of being.
Ontology
Study of what is real.
Ontology
View that knowledge is derived from reason.
Rationalism
Working of the mind on mateial provided by the mind itself
Reason
Believed knowledge is a priori.
Rationalists
Truthat can be known WITHOUT observation.
a priori
They believe the human mind contains innate ideas.
Rationalists
Mind and the world are seen to be in conformity.
Rationalism
Descartes, Spinoza & Leibniz
Classical Rationalists
View that knowledge is derived from sense experience.(observation)
Empiricism
Believe knowledge is a posteriori.
Empiricists
Truth that can be established only through observation.
a posteriori
Locke, Berkeley and Hume.
Classical Empiricists
Rejects the existence of innate ideas.
Empiricism
Believe all knowledge is acquired by sense experience.
empiricists
John Locke believed the mind to be a __________.
Tabula rasa(blank slate)
Empiricists believe the mind can contain no knowledg which was not first contained in the ________.
senses
Religion based on reason and natural law.
Deism
Belief that God started the universe like a perfect clock and then left it alone.
Deism
Enlightenment's religion.
Deism
Some people reacted to Enlightenment and did not believe that _________ could explain the universe.
reason alone
In a religious reaction to the enlightenment people sought religions which emphasized the ________.
emotions
Founded the American Quaker Colony.
William Penn
William Penn and Quker advocated _________.
Pacifism
Opposition to the use of violence.
Pacifism
Inaugurated the liberal and democratic movementsof the 19th century.
French Revolution
France's institutions of Monarchy and Feudalism.
Old Regime
Name for Frence's social classes.
Estates
King of France at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Louis XVI
First Estate.
Catholic Clergy
Second Estate.
Noblility
Bourgeoisie, artisans, and peasants.
Third Estate
Middle Class
Bourgeoisie
Large Gap between the rich and the poor.
Cause of the French Revolution.
Heavy tax burden on the Third Estate.
Cause of the French Revolution.
First & Second Estate don’t pay taxes.
Cause of the French Revolution.
Enlightenment ideas of Freedom and Equality.
Cause of the French Revolution.
Growth of the middle class.
Cause of the French Revolution.
Wide spread famine.
Cause of the French Revolution.
In 1789 Louis XVI called a meeting of the _________.
Estates General.
The Estates General had not met in over _________.
150 years.
Louis XVI called the Estates General because he needed to _____.
raise money
Included all three estates.
Estates General.
Upper two estates wanted to vote as ______.
Estates
Third Estate wanted to vote as______.
delegates.
Voting as delegates would give power to the ________.
Third Estate
Louis XVI refused the Third Estate’s request for a _________.
Mass Meeting (voting as delegtes)
The Third Estate declared itself to be the _____________.
The National Convention.
Members of the National Assembly swore to remain in session until a constituion was completed.
Tennis court oath.
Ordered all three estates to negotiate in the National Assembly.
Louis XVI
Ordered Swiss troops to Paris.
Louis XVI
French Royal Prison.
Bastille.
Attacked by Parisians to defend the National Assembly.
Bastille.
Symbolic beginning of the French Revolution.
Storming of the Bastille.
Confusion and violence that followed the start of the rebellion.
The Great Fear.
Voted to end special privileges of Nobility & Clergy (Old Regime).
National Assembly.
Slogan of the Revolution.
“Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
National Assembly guaranteed freedom of speech, press, and religion.
“Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the citizen.”
In 1791 the National Assembly created a ________.
Limited Constitutional Monarchy.
Extreme radicals who demanded “true democracy.”
Jacobins.
Unpopular Queen of France.
Marie Antoinette
National Assembly declared war on ________.
Austria
Joined Austria in war against France.
Prussia
Seized control of Assembly remove king from office.
Jacobins.
Jacobins killed people they claimed were _____________.
Counter-revolutionaries
Called by Radicals to rewrite French Constitution.
National Assembly.
National Convention abolished _____.
Monarchy
National Convention declared France a _______.
Republic
Convicted of Treason and executed by the National Convention.
Louis XVI
Alliance of European countries against France.
First Coalition
Because of threats from within, and without, the Convention formed the ____________.
Committee of Public Safety
Jacobin became the head of the Committee of Public Safety.
Robespierre
To stop counter-revolution the committee began the ________.
Reign of Terror
500,000 people arrested, 40,000 executed on guillotine.
Reign of Terror
Used by committee to deal with invading armies.
Mass Moblization
Whole society helps to defeat enemy.
Mass Moblization
Members of the Convention turned on him because they feared for their own safety.
Robespierre
Was himself guillotined along with many followers.
Robespierre
Robespierre’s death ended the _________.
Reign of Terror
Took control of the Convention after the Reign of Terror.
Bourgeoisie
Conservative Government set up by the Convention after the end of the Reign of Terror.
The Directory.
None
Put in Command of France’s armies by the Directory.
Napoleon.
Seized power from the Directory in a Coup d’ etat.
Napoleon.
Quick overthrow of government by a small group.
Coup d’ etat.
As first Consul of the French Republic Napoleon assumed ____.
Dictoral powers.
Used soldiers to restore order to France.
Napoleon.
Napoleon was able to get the backing of French Catholics and the ____.
Pope
None
Made the law clear and consistent in France.
Napoleonic code
Bonaparte became Emperor Napoleon I by __________.
The will of the people
Napoleon expanded his empire to include most of ________.
Europe
British Admiral who defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar.
Horatio Nelson.
Because of his defeat in the Battle of Trafalgar,
Napoleon gave up on _____.
Invading Britain
None
Napoleon tried to keep British goods out of __________.
European ports
Napoleon invaded it because it refused to stop
selling goods to Britain.
Russia.
None
Was a disaster because of winter conditions.
Napoleon's invasion of Russia.
Tactic used by Russians against Napoleon.
Scorcehd-earth.
On retreat from Russia Napoleon lost _______.
4/5 of his troops
Grand Alliance defeats Napoleon at Leipzig Germany.
Battle of Nations.
After the Battle of Nations the Grand Alliance took Paris and exiled Napoleon to _________.
Elba
None
Napoleon escaped Elba and upon returning to France______.
won widespread support
Napoleon’s brief comeback.
The 100 days.
Napoleon’s final defeat to Britain and Prussia.
Waterloo.
After Waterloo Napoleon was exiled to _________.
St. Helana
Rapid Industrial growth that began in England in the mid 1700s
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution began in _______.
Great Britain
The Industrial Revolution began during the middle of the ________.
18th Century
The Industrial Revolution brought on a rapid concentration of ________.
people in cities
Changed the nature of work for many people
Industrial Revolution
Rise of urban industrial economies during 1700s & 1800s
Industrial Revolution
Public lands where farmers gathered wood grazed livestock, and raised crops
Village commons
System of labor in which workers produced goods in their homes
domestic system
System used to produce goods prior to Industrial Revolution
domestic system
Allowed workers to produce goods & still farm & do household chores
domestic system
Practice of fencing off land formerly open to common grazing and cultivation
Enclosure
Ended small farmers use of public lands
Enclosure movement
The enclosure movement displaced farmers who became a ________.
labor supply
New tools & techniques result in greater crop & livestock production
Agricultural Revolution
The agricultural revolution helped Great Britain lead the ___________.
Industrial Revolution
Capital, natural resources, & labor supply were key elements in Britain’s _______.
industrial success
Money to invest in labor machines & raw materials
capital
Large scale farming, overseas commerce, & the slave trade helped the British produce ____.
capital
Industry provided the aristocracy and the middle class a chance to _______.
invest
Water power, Iron & coal were British _____.
raw materials
Improved agricultural techniques increased the ____.
food supply
An increased food supply increased the ______.
population
Risk-taking people who set up industries by bringing together capital, labor & new industrial inventions
Entrepreneurs
First industry to be industrialized
Textile
Fabric industry
Textile
Developed the Cotton Gin
Eli Whitney
Cleaned the seeds out of cotton
Cotton Gin
The mechanization of the textile industry came about through a series of _______.
inventions
Organized method of production, brought workers and machines together under control of managers
factory system
Inventor of the first practical steam engine
James Watt
Enabled factories to run without the need of water power
Steam Engine
Individuals own the means of production
capitalism
Factories, frms and mines.
Means of Production
Individuals decide what is produced and how money is spent. (free enterprise)
Capitialism
Continually expanding factories or investing in new business.
Industrial Capitalism
Contributed the concept of interchangeable parts.
Eli Whitney
Using machines to create uniform, exchangeable goods/parts.
Interchangeable parts
Each worker performs a specialized task
division of labor
A product is assembled by a division of labor as it moves along a conveyor belt.
Assembly line
Used the assembly line to mass produce Model T automobiles.
Henry Ford
Business owned by stockholders
Corperation
Provide capital and disperse risk.
Corperations
Developed a practical incandescent ligh bulb.
Thomas Edison
First to build a self powered airplane.
Orville and Wilbur Wright
Insustrialization enabled industrialists to move into the __________.
middle class
Factory work was often monotonous and _____.
dangerous
During the Industrial Revelution cities had inadequate ___________.
clean water
Workers associations developed into _______.
labor unions
Owners of railroads, facories & mines advocated ___________ economies.
laissez-faire
Developed the concept of utilitarianism.
Jeremy Bentham
Every action should be judged by its contibution to human happiness or the reduction of human misery.
Utilitarianism
He rejected laissez-faire economies on grounds of utilitarianism.
John Stuart Mill
Argued for legislation against monopolies & for the protection of individual liberties
John Stuart Mill
Community owenership of the means of production.
Socialism
No competition, share the wealth.
Socialism
Government where the power of the crown is unchecked.
Absolute Monarchy
Another name for the Age of Monarchs.
Age of Absolutism.
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1500s and early 1600s.
Spain
Was both the Holy Roman Emperor and the king of Spain.
Charles V
Dynasty of Charles V and Philip II.
Hapsburg
When Charles V divided his empire his son Phillip II became _________.
King of Spain
Strongest monarch during Spanish supremacy
Philip II
Philip II and other absolute monarchs believed they were kings by ________.
Divine Right
The idea that royal power is granted by God.
Divine Right of Kings
He used wealth (gold & silver) from colonies to build the largest and strongest army in Europe.
Philip II
Philip II saw Spain as the defender of the __________.
Catholic Faith
He involved Spain in wars against the enemies of Catholicism. (Protestants, Muslims etc.)
Philip II
Philip II attempted to force all non-Catholics to ________________.
convert or leave Spain
Was used as a reign of terror to extract all non-catholic elements from Spain.
Spanish Inquisition
This source of wealth enabled Spain to become the strongest nation in Europe.
American Colonies
Philip II sent it to invade England.
Spanish Armada
It's defeat in 1588 was the beginning of Spain's decline as the leading European power.
Spanish Armada
In the late 1500s, France was torn by reiigious conflict between ___________.
Catholics & Huguenots
French Protestant Calvinists
Huguenots
First Bourbon King
Henry of Navarre/Henry IV
Established the Edict Nantes
Henry IV
Gave French Protestants religious freedom in 1598.
Edict of Nantes
Real Ruler during the reign of Louis XIII
Cardinal Richelieu
Involved Catholic France in the 30 years war on the side of the protestants.
Cardinal Richelieu
Was triggered by a rebellion of Bohemian protestants.
Thirty Years War
Started over religion ended up over the balance of power.
Thirty Years War
Ended the 30 years war.
Peace of Westphalia
Made France the strongest country in Europe
Peace of Westphalia
Louis XIV Minister of Finance
Colbert
A tax on imports
Protective tariff
Sun King ruled France from 1643 to 1715.
Louis XIV
He weakened the power of the nobles by inviting them to live in Luxury in his palace.
Louis XIV
Strongest French Monarch
Louis XIV
In 1685 Louis XIV revoked the _______.
Edict of Nantes
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1600's
France
Small nations band together to keep a strong nation from dominating.
Balance of Power
War fought to Keep Louis XIV's grandson off the throne of Spain
War of Spanish Succession
Ended the War of Spanish Succession
Treaty of Utrecht
Broke French Treasury and military power
War of Spanish Succession
Prevented the alliance of France and Spain
Treaty of Utrecht
His policies brought France near financial ruin and created class conflict
Louis XIV
Philip II's English rival.
Elizabeth I
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603.
Elizabeth I
English captains that captured Spanish Treasure ships and defeated the Spanish Armada.
Sea Dogs
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603, last Tudor monarch.
Elizabeth I
First Stuart Monarch believed in the Divine Right of Kings.
James I
Those who believed in the Divine Right of Kings believed Monarchs were only answerable to ___.
God
Succeeded James I as King of England.
Charles I
His reign ended in England's civil war
Charles I
It was fought over who should rule England: Monarch or Parliament.
English Civil War
Those who supported Charles I in the English Civil War
Cavaliers
Those who supported Parliament in the English Civil War
Roundheads
Roundheads were mainly _____.(religion)
Puritans
Led parliament's army to victory in the English Civil War.
Oliver Cromwell
The English Parliament tried and executed _________.
Charles I
The House of Commons abolished monarchy and declared Engand a republic called the ____.
commonwealth
Cromwell drove out Parliament and set up a ________.
military dictatorship
Name for Cromwell's military dictatorship
Protectorate
Cromwell's dictatorship enforced a _______.
Puritan moral Code
Cromwell did not tolerate open worship for ___.
Catholics
Richard Cromwell succeeded his father as Lord Protector of England, but when England tired of strict Puritan ways he was deposed by a ___.
Military coup
He was invited by Parliament to come back from exile and become king.
Charles II
The return of Charles II as King of England
Restoration
Restoration date
A.D. 1660
The Restoration gave England a ______.
Constitutional monarchy
Catholic brother and successor to Charles II.
James II
English feared that James II would make Catholicism the _______.
State Religion
Name for the bloodless deposing of James II.
Glorious Revolution
William & Mary were given joint rule of England after the Glorious Revolution but they first had accept the ____.
English Bill of Rights
The Enlgish Bill of Rights made sure Parliament had more power than the ruler and established ________.
limited monarchy
Date of the Glorious Revolution
AD 1688
Was selected by leading German princes but in reality did not have much power.
Holy Roman Emperor
Allowed Maria Theresa to inherit the Throne of Austria
Pragmatic Sanction
Maria Theresa' dynasty.
Hapsburg
Dynasty that ruled Prussia during the Age of Monarchs.
Hohenzollern
Centralized Prussian Government. Made Prussian army the most efficient fighting force in Europe.
Frederick William I
Most powerful ruler in Prussian History
Frederick II (the Great)
He rejected the Pragmatic Sanction and started the war of Austrian Succession
Frederick II (the Great)
Maria Theresa keeps the throne of Austria, Austria loses Silesia.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Starts as a struggle between Austria & Prussia becomes a struggle between England & France.
Seven Years War
Name of the Seven Years war in America
French and Indian War
In 1650 Russia was an isolated and _________.
backward country
Title of the Russian ruler.
Czar
Czar who worked to modernize/Westernize Russia
Peter the Great
Peter the Great was an ________.
absolute monarch
Peter fought the Swedes and the Turks to gain a ________.
warm water port
Peter the Great built the new capital of Russia_______.
St. Petersburg
She followed the lead of Peter the Great in embracing Western ideas and expanding Russia's borders.
Cathrine the Great
Intellectual movembent of the 17th & 18th centuries.
Enlightenment
The Enlightenment celebrated the powers of ______.
Reason
Enlightenment thinkers promoted religious ____________.
toleration
Enlightenment thinkers sough to construct government free of_____________.
tyranny
Enlightenment thinkers believed all problems could be solved with__________.
reason
The Enlightenment was prompted by the __________ (1500s & 1600s).
Scientific Revolution
Sun is the center of the Solar System.
Helicentric theory
He devoloped the Heliocentric theory.
Copernicus
He developed a telescope and supported the Helicentric theory.
Galileo
Probably more responsible for the development of scientific method than any other individual.
Galileo Galilei
Galileo was forced to recant by the ____________.
Catholic Church
Demonstrated that planets move in ellipses/ovals.
Johannes Kepler
His discoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyone else's
Isaac Newton
He laid the foundations for the scientific theories that susquently revolutionized the world
Isaac Newton
Newton developed the theory of ____________.
Gravity
Newton discovered that the universe is governed by__________.
natural laws
Newton's discoveries led people to view the universe as _________.
mechanical
He developed Calculus.
Isaac Newton
Hobbes, Locke& Rousseau were all considered _________.
social contract theorists
Because Thomas Hobbes believed; governments were created to protect people from their own selfishness, he believed they _______..
never had the right to revolt.
Form of Gorernment advocated by Thomas Hobbes.
Absolute Monarchy
He believed people had Natural Rights to life, liberty and property.
John Locke
John Locke believed the foundation of Government was a __________.
Social Contract
John Locke Believed that if people's natural rights were NOT protected, they had the_________.
Right to revolt
John Locke wrote in defense of the___________.
Glorious Revolution
French Thinkers of the enlightenment.
Philosophes(not philosophers)
Philosophe who campaigned against intolerance. (wrote Candide).
Voltaire
He combined enlightenment thinking into an Encyclopdia.
Diderot
Banned Diderot's Encyclopedia.
Catholic Church
Diderot was _________ for his writings in the Encyclopedia.
imprisoned
Advocated a free market economy in the Wealth of Nations.
Adam Smith
Name for complete free market economy (leave it alone).
Laissez faire
He believed the best way to protect people's liberties was by separating the power of government into legislative, executive and judicial branches.
Montesquieu
Criticized the enlightenment's excessive emphasis on reason, he believed people needed to rely more on emotion and instinct.
Rousseau
Meetings for the discussion of ideas.
Salons
He believed you should set aside traditional beliefs and rely on observation and experiment. Early proponent of the scientific method.
Francis Bacon
He believed you should doubt everything which cannont be proved, and in the search for truth you should start NOT with faith but with doubt.
Rene Descartes
The only thing Descartes found that he could not doubt was his ________.
own existence
"I think therefore I am."
Rene Descartes
Doubt and question all ideas.
Skepticism
A denial of the possibility of knowledge
Skepticism
Total skeptic.
David Hume
He denied that there was any logical basis for knowing that one thing caused another. Denied knowledge of cause & effect.
David Hume
He believed that reason could NOT be used to explain questions of metaphysics.
Immanuel Kant
Tries to answer ultimate and universal questions.
Metaphysics
Kant believed that things that cannot be perceived in ________ cannot be known.
experience
John Locke believed the mind to be a __________.
Tabula rasa(blank slate)
Religion based on reason and natural law, the Enlightenment's religion.
Deism
Belief that God started the universe like a perfect clock and then left it alone.
Deism
Some people reacted to the Enlightenment and did not believe that _________ could explain the universe.
reason alone
Monarchs who used their power to bring about positive political and social changes.
Enlightened Despots
When Britain tried to tighten its control over the colonies after the French and Indian War, the colonies _____.
reacted
Because the American colonists believed they were being taxed without their representation and thus denied their natural rights they ___.
declared their independence.
Created a government with Montesquieu's separation of powers and a federal system.
U.S. Constitution
Governmental power (sovereignty) is divided between a central government and regional governments.
Federalism
Inaugurated the liberal and democratic movementsof the 19th century.
French Revolution
Name for France's social classes.
Estates
King of France at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Louis XVI
First Estate.
Catholic Clergy
Second Estate.
Noblility
Bourgeoisie, artisans, and peasants.
Third Estate
Middle Class
Bourgeoisie
Large Gap between the rich and the poor, heavy tax burden on the Third Estate, First & Second Estate don't pay taxes, Elightenment ideas of freedom & Equality, growth of the middle class, & wide spread famine.
Causes of the French Revolution.
In 1789 Louis XVI called a meeting of the _________ for the first time in over 150 years.
Estates General.
Louis XVI called the Estates General because he needed to _____.
raise money
Upper two estates wanted to vote as ______.
Estates
Third Estate wanted to vote as______.
delegates.
Louis XVI refused the Third Estate’s request for a _________.
Mass Meeting (voting as delegtes)
The Third Estate declared itself to be the _____________.
National Convention.
Members of the National Assembly swore to remain in session until a constituion was completed.
Tennis court oath.
Ordered all three estates to negotiate in the National Assembly.
Louis XVI
Ordered Swiss troops to Paris.
Louis XVI
French Royal Prison, attacked by Parisians to defend the National Assembly.
Bastille.
Symbolic beginning of the French Revolution.
Storming of the Bastille.
Voted to end special privileges of Nobility & Clergy (Old Regime).
National Assembly.
National Assembly guaranteed freedom of speech, press, and religion. Proclaimed all male citizens were equal but did not grant rights to women.
“Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the citizen.”
In 1791 the National Assembly created a ________.
Limited Constitutional Monarchy.
Working-class men and women who pushed for more radical action during the French Revolution.
sans-culottes
Extreme radicals who demanded “true democracy.”
Jacobins.
Unpopular Queen of France.
Marie Antoinette
National Assembly declared war on ________.
Austria
Seized control of Assembly, removed king from office. (French Revolution)
Jacobins.
Jacobins killed people they claimed were _____________.
Counter-revolutionaries
Called by Radicals to rewrite French Constitution.
National Convention
National Convention abolished Monarchy and declared France a _______.
Republic
Convicted of Treason and executed by the National Convention.
Louis XVI
During the French Revolution European monarchies fearing the spread of revolution to their countries ____.
allied against France
Because of threats from within, and without, the Convention formed the ____________.
Committee of Public Safety
Jacobin became the head of the Committee of Public Safety.
Robespierre
To stop counter-revolution the committee began the ________. (500,000 people arrested, 40,000 guillotined.
Reign of Terror
Used by committee to deal with invading armies.
Mass Moblization
Whole society helps to defeat enemy.
Mass Moblization
Members of the Convention turned on him because they feared for their own safety. He was guillotined along with many of his followers.
Robespierre
Robespierre’s death ended the _________.
Reign of Terror
Took control of the Convention after the Reign of Terror.
Bourgeoisie
Conservative Government set up by the Convention after the end of the Reign of Terror.
Directory
Put in Command of France’s armies by the Directory.
Napoleon.
Seized power from the Directory in a Coup d’ etat.
Napoleon.
Quick overthrow of government by a small group.
Coup d’ etat.
As first Consul of the French Republic Napoleon assumed ____.
Dictatorial powers.
Used soldiers to restore order to France.
Napoleon.
Made the law clear and consistent in France.
Napoleonic code
Bonaparte became Emperor Napoleon I by __________.
The will of the people
Napoleon expanded his empire to include most of ________.
Europe
British Admiral who defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar.
Horatio Nelson.
Because of his defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar, Napoleon gave up on _____.
invading Britain
Napoleon tried to keep British goods out of __________.
European ports
Napoleon invaded IT because IT refused to stop selling goods to Britain.
Russia
Was a disaster because of winter conditions.
Napoleon's invasion of Russia.
Tactic used by Russians against Napoleon.
Scorcehd-earth.
On retreat from Russia Napoleon lost _______.
4/5 of his troops
Grand Alliance defeats Napoleon at Leipzig Germany.
Battle of Nations.
After the Battle of Nations the Grand Alliance took Paris and exiled Napoleon to _______.
Elba
Napoleon escaped Elba and upon returning to France______.
won widespread support
Napoleon’s brief comeback.
The 100 days.
Napoleon’s final defeat to Britain and Prussia.
Waterloo.
After Waterloo Napoleon was exiled to _________.
St. Helena
Date of Waterloo.
A.D. 1815
Napoleon's lasting influence was that his soldiers spread the ideals of the _____ across Europe.
French Revolution
After the defeat of Napoleon it was held to create a new balance of power to preserve the peace.
Congress of Vienna
Leading figure at the Congress of Vienna.
Metternich