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202 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
government where the power of the crown is unchecked
1. absolute monarchy
another name for the age of monarchs
age of absolutism
strongest nation in europe during the 1500s and early 1600s
was both the holy roman emperor and the king of spain
charles v
dynasty of charles v and phillip 2
when charles v divided his empire his son phillip 2 became?
king of spain
strongest monarch during spanish supremacy
phillip 2
phillip 2 and other absolute monarch believed they were kings by?
divine right
the idea that royal power is granted by god
divine right of kings
he used wealth (gold and silver) from colonies to build the largest and strongest army in europe
phillip 2
phillip 2 saw spain as the defender of the ?
catholic faith
he involved spain in wars agaqinst the enemies of catholicism
philip 2
phillip 2 attemped to force all non-catholics to?
convert or leave spain
Philip 2 attended to force all non-catholics to?
convert of leave spain
was used as a reign of terror to extract all non catholics elements form spain
spanish inquisition
this source of wealth enabled spain to become the strongest nation in europe
american colonies
phillip 2 sent it to invade england
spainsh armda
its defeat in 1588 was the beginning of spains decline as the leading european power
spainsh armada
in the late 1500s, france was torn by religous conflict between?
catholics and huguenots
french protestant calvinists
first bourbon king
henry of navarre/henry 6
established the edict nantes
henry 6
gave french protestants religious freedom in 1598
edict of nantes
real ruler during the reign of louis 13
cardinal richelieu
invloved catholic french in the 30 years war on he side of the protestants
carninal richelieu
was triggered by a rebellion
thirty years war
started over religion ended up over he balance of power
thirty years war
ended the 30 years war
peace of westphilia
made the strongest country in europe
peace of west phialia
louis 15 minister of france
a tax on imposrts
protective tariff
sun king ruled france from 1643 to 1715
louis 15
e weakend the power of the nobles by inviting them to live in luxery in his palace
louis 15
strongest french monarch
louis 15
in 1685 louis 15 revoked the?
edict of nantes
strongest nation in europe during the 1600s
small nations band together to keep a strong nation from dominating
balance of power
war fought to keep louis 15s grandson off the throne of spain
war of spanish successions
ended the war of spanish succession
treaty of utrecht
broke french treasury and military power
war of spanish succession
prevented the alliance of france and spain
tready of utracht
his policies brought france near financial ruin and created class conflict
louis 15
phillip 2s english rival
elizabeth 1
phillip 2s english rival
elizabeth 1
ruled england from 1558 to 1603
elizabeth 1
england captians that captured spanish treasure ships and defeated the spanish armada
sea dogs
ruled england from 1558 to 1603 last tudor monarch
elizabeth 1
first stuart monarch believed in the divine right of kings
james 1
those who beieved in he divine right of kings believed monarchs were only anwserable to
succeeded james 1 as king of england
charles 1
his reign ended in englands civil war
charles 1
his reign ended in englands civil war
charles 1
it was fought over who should rule england: monarch or parliament
english civil war
those who supported charles 1 in the english civil war
those who supported parliament in the english civil war
roundheads were mainly?
led parliaments army to victory in the english civil war
oliver cromwell
the english parilament tried and executed
charles 1
the house of common abolished monarchy and declared engand a republic called?
cromwell drove out parliament and set up a?
military dictatorship
name for cromwells military dictatorship
cromwells dictatorship enforced a ?
puritan moral code
cromwell did not tolerate open worship for?
richard cromwell succeeded his father as lord prrotector of england, but when england tired of strict puritans ways he wsa deposed by a?
military coup
he was invited by parliament to come back from exile and become king
charles 2
the returrn of charles 2 as king of england
the restoration gave england?
constitutional monarchy
restoration date
ad 1660
catholic brother and successor to charles 2
james 2
english feared that james 2 would make catolicism the?
state relgion
name for the bloodless deposing of james 2
glorious revolution
william and mary were given joint rule of england after the glorious revolution but they first had accept the?
english bill of rights
the english bill of rights made sure parliament had more power than the ruler and establishment
limited monarchy
date of the glorious revolution
ad 1688
was selected by leading german princes but in reality did not have much power
holy roman emperor
allowed maria theresa to inherit the throne of austria
pragmatic sanction
marias theresa' dynasty
dynasty that ruled prussia during the age of monarchs
centralized prussia during the age of monarachs
fredrick william 1
most powerful ruler in prussian history
fredrick 2(the great)
the rejected the pragmatic samction and started he war of austrian succession
fredrick 2(the great)
maria theresa keeps the throne of austria, austria loses silesia
tready of aix-la-chapelle
starts as a struggle between austria and prussia becomes a struggle between england and france
seven years war
name of the seven years war in america
french and indian war
in 1650 russia was an isolated and?
backward country
title of the russain ruler
czar who worked to modernize/westernize russia
peter the great
peter fought the swedes and the turks to gain a?
warm water port
peter the great was an?
absolute monarch
peter he great built the new capital of russia?
st. petersburg
she follows the lead of peter the great in embracing western ideas and expanding russias border
catherine the great
intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries
the enlightenment celebrated the power of?
enlightenment thinkers promoted religions ?
enlightenment thinkers sough to construct government free of?
enlightenment thinkers believed all problems could be solves with?
the enlightenment was promoted by the?
scientific revolution
sun is the center of the solar system
helicentric thoery
he developed the telescope and supported the selcentric theory
probably more responsible for the development of scientific method than any other individual
galileo galilei
galileo was forced to recent by the?
catholic church
demonstrated that plants move in ellipse/ovels
johannes kepler
his dicoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyones else
issac newton
he laid the foundations for the scientific thoeries that susquently revolutionized the world?
issac newton
newton developed the theory of?
newton discovered that the universe is governed by?
natural laws
newtons discoveries led people to view the universe as?
he developed calculus
isaac newton
hobbes, locked and rousseau were all lconsidered
social contract theorists
because thomas hobbes believed; government were created to protect peole from their own selfishment, he believed they
never had the right to revolt
form of government advocated by thomas hobbes
absolute monarchy
form of government advocated by thomas hobbes
absolute monarchy
he believed people had natural rights to life, libery and property
john locke
john locke believed the foundation of government was a?
socail contract
john locke believed that if people natural rights were not protected they had the?
right of revolt
john locke wrote in defence of the?
glorious revolution
french thinkers of the enlightenment?
philosophe who campaigned against intolerance.
he combined enlightenment thinking into an encyclopdia
banned diderots encyclopdia
catholic church
diderot was for this writng in the encyclopdia
advocated a free market economy in the wealth of nations
adam smith
name for complete free market economy
laissez smith
he believed the best way to protect peoples liberites was by separating the power of government into legislative, executive and judicial
criticized the enlightenmnets excessive emphasis on reason, he beelieved people need to rely more on emotion and instink
meetings for the dicussion of ideas
he believed you should set aside ttraditional beliefs and rely on observation and experiment. early proponent of the scientific method
he believed you sohuld dought everything witch cannot be proved, and in the search for truth you should start not with faith but with dought
rene descartes
the only thing descartes found that he could not dought was his
own existence
i think therefor i am?
rene descartes
dought and question all ideas
a denail pf the possibility of knowledge
total speptic
david hume
he denied that there was any logical basis for knowing that one thing caused another. denied knowledge of cause and effect
david hume
he believed that reason could not be used to explain questions of metaphysics
immanuel kant
tries to answer ultimate and universal questions
kant believed that things that connot be perceived in ? cannot be known
john locke believed the mind to be a?
tabula rasa
religion based on reason and natural law, the enlightenment religion
belief that god started the universe like a perfect clock and then left alone.
some people reacted to the enlightenment and did not believe that ? could explain the universe
reason alone
monarchs who used their power to bring about positive political and social changes
when britain tried to tighten its control over the colonies after the french and indian war, the colonies
because the american colonists believed they were being taxed without their representation and thus denied their natural rights they?
declared their indepandance
created a government with montesquieus seperation of powers and a federal systen
us constitution
governmental power is divided between a central government and regional governments
inaugurated the liberal and democratic movements of the 19th century
french revolution
name for frences social classes
king of france a the beginning of the french revolution
louis 15
first estate
catholic clergy
second estate
bourgeoisie, artisans, and peasants
third estate
middle class
large gap between the rich and the poor, heavy tax burden on the third estate, first and second estate dont pays taxes, enlightenment ideas of freedom and equality , growth of the middle class and wide sread
causes of the french revolution
in 1789 louis 16 called a meeting od the ? for the first time in over 150 years
estates general
louis 16 called the estates general because he needed to?
raise money
upper two estates wnated to vote as?
third estate wanted to vote as?
louis 16 refused the third estate request for a ?
mass meeting
the third estate declared itself tobe the?
national convention
members of the national assembly swore to remain in session until a constitution was complete
tennis court oath
ordered all three estates to negotiate in the national assembly
louis 16
ordered swiss troops to paris
louis 16
french royal prison attacked by parisians to defend the national assembly
symblic begginning of the french revolution
storming of the bastille
voted to end specil privliges of nobility and clergy
national assembly
national assembly gauranteed freedom of speach press religion. proclaimed all male citizens were equal but did not grant rights to woman
"declaration or the rights of man and of the citizens
in 1791 the national assembly created a
limited constitutional monarchy
working-class men and woman who pushed for more radical action during the french revolution
extreme radicals who demanded true deemocracy.
unpopular queen of france
marie antoinette
national assembly declared war on?
seized controll ofassembly removed king from office.
jacobins killed people they claimed were?
called by radicals to write french constitution
national convention
national convention abolisged monarchy and declared france a?
convicted of treason and executed by the national convention
louis 16
during the french revolution european monarchies fearing the spread of the revolution to their countries
allied against france
because of threats from within and without the convention formed the?
committe of public safty
jacobson became he head of the committee of public safty
the stop counter-revolution the committee began the?
reign of terror
used by committee to deal with invading armies
mass moblization
whole society helps to defeat enemy
mass moblization
members of the convention turned on him because they feared for their own safty. He was guillotined along with many of his followers
robespierres death ended the?
reign of terror
took control of the convention after the reign of terror
canservation government set up by the convention after the end of the reign of terror
put in command of frances armies by the directory
seized power command of frances the directory in a coup d' etat
quick overthrow of government by a small group.
coup d' e
as first consul of the french repulic napoleon assumed.
dictatorial powers
used solidgers to restore order to france
made the law clear and consisted in france
napoleonic code
nepoleon expanded his empire to include most of?
bonaparte became emperor napoleon 1 by?
the will of the peole
british admiral who defeated nepoleon at the battle of trafalgar
because of his defeat at the battle of trafalgar, napoleon gave up on?
invading british
british admiral who defested napolian at the battle of trafalgar
horatio nelson
because of his defeat a the battle of trafalgar napolean gave up on??
invading nelson
napoleon tried to keep british goods out of?
European ports
napoloean invaded it becase it refused to stop selling goods to british
was a disaster because of winter conditions
napoleon invasion of russia