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209 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Another name for the Age of Monarchs.
Age of Absolutism
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1500s and early 1600s
Was both the Holy Roman Emperor and the king of Spain.
Charles V
Dynasty of Charles V and Phillip II became___________.
King Of Spain
Strongest monarch during Spanish supremacy
Phillip II
Phillip II and other absolute monarchs believed they were kings by_________.
Divine Right
The idea that royal power is granted by God.
Divine Right of Kings
He used wealth (gold & silver) from colonies to build the largest and strongest army in Europe.
philip II
When Charles V divided his empire his son Phillip II became___________.
King Of Spain
Government where the power of the crown is unchecked.
Absolute Monarchy
He involved Spain in wars against the enemies of Catholicism.(Protestants,Muslim etc.)
Philip II
Philip II saw attempted to force all non-Catholics to_________.
Convert of leave Spain
Was used as a reign of terror to ectract all non-catholic elements from Spain.
Spanish Inquisition
This source of wealth enabled Spain to become the strongest nation in Eroupe.
American Colonies
Philip II sent it to invade England.
Spanish Armada
It's defeat in 1588 was the beginning of Spain's decline as the leading European power.
Spanish Armada
In the late 1500s,France was torn by religious conflict between_____________.
Catholics & Huguenots
French protestant Calvinists
First Bourbon King
Henry of Navarre/Henry IV
Established the Edict Nantes
Henry Iv
Gave French Protestants religious freedom in 1598.
Edict of Nantes
Real Ruler during the reign of Louis XIII
Cardinal Richelieu
Involved Catholic France in the 30 yrs. war on the side of the protestants.
Cardinal Richelieu
Was triggered by a rebellion of Bohemian protestants.
Thirty years war
Started over religion ended up over the balance power.
Thirty years war
Ended the 30 yrs war.
Peace of Westphalia
Made France the strongest country in Europe
Peace of Westphalia
Louis XIV Minister of Finance
A tax on imports
Protective tariff
Sun King ruled France from 1643 to 1715.
Louis XIV
He weakened the power of the nobles by inviting them to live in Luxury in his palace.
Louis XIV
Strongest French Monarch
Louis XIV
In 1685 Louis XIV revoked the__________.
Edict of Nantes
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1600's
Small nations band together to keep a strong nation from dminating.
Balance of Power
War fought to keep Louis XIV's grandson off the throne of Spain.
War of Spanish Succession
Ended the war of Spanish Succession
Treaty of Utrecht
Broke French treasury and military power.
War of Spanish Succession
Prevented the alliance of France and Spain
Treaty of Utrecht
His policies brought France near financial ruin and created class conflict.
Louis XIV
Philip II's English rival.
Elizabeth I
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603.
Elizabeth I
English captians that captured Spanish Treasure ships and defeated the Spanish Armada.
Sea Dogs
Ruled England From 1558 to 1603, last Tudor monarch.
Elizabeth I
First Stuart Monarch believed in the Divine Right of Kings.
James I
Those who believed in the Divine Right of Kings believed Monarchs were only answerable to_________.
Succeeded James I as King of England
Charles I
His reign ended in England's Civil War.
Charles I
It was fought over who should rule England:Monarch or Parliament.
English Civil War
Those who supported Charles I in the English Civil War
Those who supported Parliament in the English Civil War
Roundheads were mainly_____.(religion)
Led parliament's army to victory in the English Civil War
Oliver Cromwell
The English Parliament tried and executed__________.
Charles I
The House of Commons abolished monarchy and declared England a republic called the_______.
Common Wealth
Cromwell drove out Parliament and set up a__________.
Military dictatorship
Name for Cromwell's military dictatorship
Cromwell's dictatorship enforced a__________.
Puritan moral Code
Cromwell did not tolerate open worship for_________.
Richard Cromwell succeeded hi father as Lord Protector of England,but when England tried of strict Puritan ways he was deposed by a_________.
Military Soup
He was invited by Parliament to come back from exile and become king.
Charles II
The return of Charles II as King of England
Restoration date
A.D. 1660
The Restoration gave England a________.
Constitutional monarchy
Catholic brother and successor to Charles II.
James II
English feared that James II would make Catholicism the_______.
State Religion
Name for the bloodless deposing of James II.
Glorious Revolution
William & Mary were given joint rule of England after the Glorious Revolution but they first had accept the_____.
English Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights made sure parliament had more power than the ruler and established_________.
Limited monarchy
Date of the Glorious Revolution
AD 1688
Was selected by leading German princed but in reality did not have much power.
Holy Roman Emperor
Allowed Maria Theresa to inherit the Throne of Austria
pragmatic Sanction
Maria Theresa' dynasty.
Dynasty that ruled prussia during the age of monarchs
Centralized Prussian Government.Made Purssian army the most efficeint fighting force in Europe.
Frederick William I
Most powerful ruler in Prussian History
Frederick II (The Great)
He rejected the Pragmatic Sanction and started the war of Austiran Succession
Frederick II (The Great)
Maria Theresa keeps the throne of Austria , Austria loses Silesia.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Starts as a struggle between Austria and Prussia becomes a struggle betwween England and France.
Seven Years war
Name of the seven Years war in America
French and Indian war
In 1650 Russia was an isolated and________.
Backward country
Title of the Russian Ruler.
Czar who worked to modernize/westernize Russia
Peter the Great
Peter the Great was an_______.
Absolute monarch
Peter fought the Swedes and the Turks to gain a________.
warm water port
Peter the Great built the new capital of Russia___________.
St. Petersburg
She followed the lead of Peter the Great in embracing western ideas and expanding Russia's borders.
Cathrine the Great
Intellectual movembent of the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Enlightenment celebrated the powers of_________.
Enlightenment thinkers promoted religious_______________.
Enlightenment thinkers sough to construct government free of _____.
Enlightenment thinkers believed all problems could be solved with__________.
The Enlightenment was prompted by the_________(1500s & 1600s)
Scientific Revolution
Sun is the center of the Solar System.
Helicentric theory
He developed the Helicentric theory.
He developed a telescope and supported the Helicentric theory.
Probably more responsible for the developement of scientific method than any other individual.
Galileo Galilei
Galileo was forced to recant by the_________.
Catholic Church
Demonstrated that planets move in ellipses/ovals
Johannes Kepler
His discoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyone else's
Isaac Newton
He laid the foundations for the scientific theories that susquently revolutionized the world
Isaac Newton
Newton delevolped the theory of________.
Newton discovered that the universe is governed by________.
Natural laws
Newton's discoveries led people to view the universe as_________.
He developed Calculus.`
Isaac Newton
Hobbes,Locke & Rousseau were all considered_______.
social contract theorists
Because Thomas Hobbes believed; governments were created to protect people from thier own selfishness, he believed they_________.
never had the right to revolt.
Form a Government advocated by Thomas Hobbes
Absolute Monarchy
He believed people had Natural Rights to life, liberty and property.
John Locke
John Locke believed the foundation of Government was a________.
Social Contract
John Locke believed that if people's natural rights were Not Protected, they had the________.
Right to revolt
John Locke wrote in defense of the_________
Glorious Revolution
French Thinkers of the enlightenment.
Philosophes(not philosophers)
Philosophe who compaigned against intolerance.
He combined enlightenment thinking into an Encyclopdia
Banned Diderot's Encyclopdia
Catholic Church
Diderot was__________for his writings in the Encyclopdia
Advocated a free market economy in the wealth of nations
Adam Smith
Name for complete free market economy
Laissez faire
He believed the best way to protect people's liberties was by separating the power of government into legislative,executive and judicial branches
Criticized the enlightenment's excessive emphasis on reason, he believed people needed to rely more on emotion and instinct
Meetings for the discussion of ideas
He believed you should set aside traditional beliefs and rely on observation and experiment. Early proponent of hte scientific method
Francis Bacon
He believed you should doubt everything which cannot be proved, and in the search for truth you should start NOT with faith but with doubt.
Rene Descartes
The only thing Descartes found that he could not doubt was his________.
own existence
"I think therefore I am."
Rene Descartes
Doubt and question all ideas
A denial of the possibility of knowledge
Total skeptic
David Hume
He denied that there was any logical basis for knowing that one thing caused another. Denied knowlege of cause & effect.
David Hume
He believed that reason could NOT be used to explain questions of metaphysics.
Immanuel Kant
Tries to answer ultimate and universal questions
Kant believed that things that cannot be perceived in__________cannot be known
John Locke believed the mind to be a________.
Tabula rasa(blank slate)
Religion based on reason and natural law, the Enlightenment's religion.
Belief that God started the universe like a perfect clock and then left in alone
Some people reacted to the Enlightenment and did not believe that________could explain the universe
Reason alone
Monarchs who used thier power to bring about positive political and social changes
Enlightenment Despots
When Britian tried to tighten its control over the colonies after the French and Indain war, the colonies_________.
Because the American colonists believed they were being taxed without thier representation and thus denied thier natural rights they_______.
Declared thier independence
Created a government with Montesquieu's separation of powers and a federal system.
U.S. Constitution
Governmental power is divided between a central government and regional governments.
Inaugurated the liveral and democratic movements of the 19th century.
Frnch Revolution
Name for France's social classes.
King of Frace at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Louis XVI
First estate
Catholic Clergy
Second Estate
Bourgeoisie,artisans,and peasants
Third state
Middle class
Large Gap betwwen the rich and the poor heavy tax burden on the Third Estate, First and Second Estate don't pay taxed,Elightenment ideas of Freedom and Equality growth of the middle class and wide spread
Causes of the French Revolution
In 1789 Louis XIV called a meeting of the ________for the first time in over 150 yrs.
Estates General
Louis XIV called the Estates General because he needed to_________.
Raise money
Upper two estates wanted to vote as_________.
Third Estate wanted to vote as_________.
Louis XIV refused the Third Estate's request for a________.
Mass Meeting
The Third estate declared itself to be the____________.
National Convention
Members of the National Assembly swore to remain in session until a constitution was completed
Tennis court oath
Ordered all three estates to negotiate in the National Assembly.
Louis XVI
Ordered Swiss troops to Paris
Louis XVI
French Royal Prison,attacked by Parisians to defend the National Assembly.
Symbolic beginning of the French Revolution
Storming of the Bastille
Voted to end special privileges of Nobility and Clergy.
National Assembly
National Assembly guarnteed freedom of speech press and religion.Proclalimed all male citizens were equal but did not grant rights to women.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the citizen
In 1791 the National Assembly created a_______.
Limited Constitutional Monarchy
Working-class men and women who pushed for more radical action during the French Revolution
Extreme radicals who demanded "True Democracy"
Unpopular Queen of France
Marie Antoinette
National Assembly declared war on_________.
Seized control of Assembly,removed king from office.
Jacobins killed people they claimed were____________.
Called by Radicals to rewrite French Constitution
National Convention
National Convention abolished Monarchy and declared France a________.
Convicted of Treason and executed by the national convection
Louis XVI
During the French Revolution European monarchies fearing the spread of revolution to thier countries
Allied against France
Because of threats from within,and without,the Convection formed the___________.
Committee of Public Safety
Jacobin became the head of public safety
To stop counter-revolution the committee began the________.(500,000 arrested)
Reign of Terror
Used by committee to deal with invading armies.
Mass Mobilization
Whole society helps to defeat enemy.
Mass Movilization
Members of the Convection turned on him because they feared for their own safety. He was guillotined along with many of his followers.
Robespierre's death ended the________.
Reign of Terror
Took control of the Convection after the Reign of Terror
Conservative Government set up by the Convention after the end of the Reign of Terror
Put in Command of France's armies by the Directory.
Put in Command for France's armies by the Directory.
Seized power from the Directory in a Coup
Quick overthrow of government by a small group.
Coup'd etat.
As first Consul of the french republic Napoleon assumed__________.
Dictatorial powers.
Used soldiers to restore order to France
Made the law clear and consistent in France
Napoleonic code
Bonaparte became Emperor Napoleon I by_______.
The will of people
Napoleon expanded his empire to include most of________.
British Admiral who defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar.
Horatio Nelson
Because of his defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar, Napoleon gave up on_________.
Invading Britain
Napoleon tried to keep British goods out of________.
European ports
Napoleon invaded IT because IT refused to stop selling goods to Britian.
Was a disaster because of winter conditions
Napoleon's Invasion of Russia
Tactic used by Russians against Napoleon
On retreat from Russia Napoleon lost________.
4/5 of his troops
Grand Alliance defeats Napoleon at Leipzig Germany
Battle of Nations
After the Battle of Nations the Grand Alliance took paris and exiled Napoleon to________.
Napoleon escaped Elba and upon returning to France______.
won sidespread support
Napoleon's brief comeback
The 100 days
Napoleon's final defeat to Britain and Prussia
After Waterloo Napoleon was exiled to__________.
St. Helena
Date of Waterloo
A.D. 1815
Napoleon's lasting influence was that his soldiers spread the ideals of the _________across Europe.
French Revolution
After the defeat of Napoleon it was held to create a new balance of power to preserve the peace.
Congress of Vienna
Leading figure at the congress of Vienna