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209 Cards in this Set

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Government where the power of the crown is unchecked.
Absolute Monarchy
Another name for the Age of Monarchs.
Age of Asolutism
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1500s and early 1600s.
Spain
Was both the Holy Roman Emperor and the king of Spain.
Charles V
Dynasty of Charles V and Philip II.
Hapsburg
When Charles V divided his empire his son Phillip II became_______.
King of Spain
Strongest monarch during Spanish supremacy.
Phillip II
Phillip II and other absolute monarchs believed they were kings by_______.
Divine Right
The idea that royal power is granted by god.
Divine Right of Kings
He used wealth (gold & silver) from colonies to build the largest and strongest army in Europe.
Phillip II
Phillip II saw Spain as the defender of the ________.
Catholic Faith
He involved Spain in wars against the enemies of Catholicism. (Protestants, Muslims etc.)
Phillip II
Phillip II attempted to force all non-Catholics to_______.
convert or leave Spain
Was used as a reign of terror to extract all non-catholic elements from Spain.
Spanish Inquisition
This source of wealth enabled Spain to become the strongest nation in Europe.
American Colonies
Phillip II sent it to invade England.
Spanish Armada
It's defeat in 1588 was the beginning of Spain's decline as the leading European power.
Spanish Armada
In the late 1500s, France was torn by religious conflict between_______.
Catholics & Huguenots
French Protestant Calvinists.
Huguenots
First Bourbon King.
Henry of Navarre/Henry IV
Established the Edict Nantes.
Henry IV
Gave French Protestants religious freedom in 1598.
Edict of Nantes
Real Ruler during the reign of Louis XIII.
Cardinal Richelieu
Involved Catholic France in the 30 years war on the side of the protestants.
Cardinal Richelieiu
Was triggered by the rebellion of Bohemian protestants.
Thirty Years War
Started over religion ended up over the balance of power.
Thirty Years War
Ended the 30 years war.
Peace of Westphalia
Made France the strongest country in Europe.
Peace of Westphalia
Louis XIV Minister of Finance.
Colbert
A tax on imports.
Protective tariff
Sun king ruled France from 1643 to 1715.
Louis XIV
He weakened the power of the nobeles by inviting them to live in Luxury in his palace.
Louis XIV
Strongest French Monarch.
Louis XIV
IN 1685 Louis XIV revoked the _______.
Edict of Nantes
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1600s.
France
Small nations band together to keep a strong nation from dominating.
Balance of Power
War fought to keep Louis XIV's grandson off the throne of Spain.
War of Spanish Succession
Ended the war of Spanish Succession.
Treaty of Utrecht
Broke french treasury and military power.
War of Spanish Succession
Prevented the alliance of france and spain.
Treaty of Utrecht
His policeies brought france near financial ruin and created class conflict.
Louis XIV
Phillip II's English rival.
Elizabeth I
Ruled england from 1558 to 1603.
Elizabeth I
English captains that captured spanish treasure ships and defeated the spanish armada.
Sea Dogs
Ruled england from 1558 to 1603 last tudor monarch.
Elizabeth I
First Stuart Monarch believed in the devine right of kings.
James I
Those who believed in the divine right of kings believed monarchs were only answerable to _____.
God
Succeeded James I as king of england.
Charles I
His reign ended in england's civil war.
Charles I
It was fought over who should rule england: Monarch or Parliament.
English Civil War
Those who supported Charles I in the english civil war.
Cavaliers
Those who suppported Parliament in the english civil war.
Roundheads
Roundheads were mainly_____.(religion)
Puritans
Led parliament's aremy to victory in the english civil war.
Oliver Cromwell
The english parliament tried and exectued_______.
Charles I
The house of commons abolished monarchy and declared england a republic called the ______.
commonwealth
Cromwell drove out Parliament and set up_____.
Military Dictatorship
Name for cromwell's military dictatorship.
Protectorate
Cromwell's dictatorship enforced a _________.
Puritan moral code
Cromwell did not tolerate open worship for _____.
Catholics
Richard Cromwell succeeded his father as lord protector of england, but when england was tired of strict puritan ways he was deposed by a ______.
Military coup
He was invited by Parliament to come back from exile and become king.
Charles II
The return of Charles II as king of england.
Restoration
Restoration date_____.
A.D. 1660
The restoration gave england a_________.
Constituional monarchy
Catholic brother and successor to charles II.
James II
English feared that James II would make catholicism the ______.
State religion
Name for the bloodless deposing of James II.
glorious revolution
William & Mary were given joint rule of england after the glorious revolution but they first had accept the_____.
english bill of rights
the english bill of rights made sure parliament had more power than the ruler and established_______.
limited monarchy
Date of the glorious revolution.
A.D. 1688
Was selected by leading german princes but in reality did not have much power.
Holy roman emperor
Allowed maria theresa to inherit the throne of austiria.
Pragmatic Sanction
Maria Theresa dynasty.
Hapsburg
Dynasty that ruled prussia during the age of monarchs.
Hohenzollern
Centralized prussian government. Made prussian army the most effecient fighting force in europe.
Frederick william I
Most powerful ruler in prussian history.
Frederick II (the great)
He rejected the pragmatic sanction and started the war of austrian succession.
Frederick II (the great)
Maria theresa keeps the throne of austria, Austria loses silesia.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Starts as a struggle between austria & prussia becomes a struggle between england & france.
Seven years war
Name of the seven years war in america.
french and indian war
In 1650 Russia was an isolated and ________.
backward country
Title of the russian ruler.
czar
Czar who worked to modernize/Westernize russia.
peter the great
Peter the great was an_______.
absolute monarch
Peter fought the sweded and the turks to gain a_________.
warm water port
Peter the great built the new capital of russia_______.
St. Petersburg
She followed the lead of peter the great in embracing western ideas and expanding russia's borders.
Catherine the great
Intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries.
enlightenment
The enlightenment celebrated the powers of _________.
reason
enlightenment thinkers promoted religous_______.
toleration
Enlightenment thinkers sough to construct government free of_______.
tyranny
Enlightenment thinkers believed all problems could be solved with ______.
reason
The enlightenment was prompted by the _________(1500s&1600s).
scientific revolution
sun is the center of the solar system.
helicentric theory
He developed the heliocentric theory.
copernicus
He developed a telescope and supported teh helicentric theory.
galileo
Probably more responsive fore the development of scientific method than any other individual.
galileo galilei
Galileo was forced to recant by the_______.
catholic church
Demonstrated that planets move in ellipses/ovals.
Johannes Kepler
His discoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyone else's.
Isaac Newton
He laid the foundations for the scientific theories taht susquently revolutionized the world.
Isaac Newton
Newton developed the theory of______.
Gravity
Newton discovered that the universe is governed by_____.
Natural laws
Newton's discoveries led people to view the universe as _________.
Mechanical
He developed calculus.
Isaac Newton
Hobbes, Locke & Rousseau were all considered_________.
Social contract theorists
Because Thomas Hobbes believed; governments were created to protect people from their own selfishness, he believed they______.
never had the right to revolt
Form of government advocated by Thomas Hobbes.
absolute monarchy
He believed people had natural rights of life, liberty and propery.
John Locke
John Locke believed the foundation of government was a _________.
Social contract
John Locke believed that if people's natural rights were NOT protected, they had the______.
Right to revolt
John Locke wrote in defense of the _______.
Glorious revolution
French thinkers of the enlightenment.
Philosophes (not philosophers)
Philosophe who campaigned against intolerance. (wrote Candide)
Voltaire
He combined enlightenment thinking into an encyclopedia.
Diderot
Banned Diderot's Encyclopedia.
Catholic Church
Dederot was ________ for his writings in the encyclopedia.
imprisoned
Advocated a free market economy in the wealth of nations.
Adam Smith
Name for complete free market economy (leave it alone).
Laissez faire
He believed the best way to protect people's liberties was by separating the power of government into legislative, executive and judicial branches.
Montesquieu
Criticized the enlightenment's excessive emphasis on reason, he believed people needed to rely more on emothion and insticnt.
Rousseau
Meetings for the discussion of ideas.
Salons
He believed you should set aside tradional beliefs and rely on ovservation and experiment. Early proponent of the scientific method.
Francis Bacon
He belived you should doubt everything which cannot be proved, and in the search for truth you should start NOT with faith but with doubt.
Rene Descartes
The only thing Descartes found that he could not doubt was his_______.
Own existence
"I think therefore I am."
Rene Descartes
Doubt and question all ideas.
Skepticism
A denial of the possibility of knowledge.
Skepticism
Total skeptic.
David Hume
he denied that there was any logical basis for knowing that one things caused another. Denied knowledge of cause & effect.
David Hume
He believed that reason could NOT be used to explain questions of metaphysics.
Immanuel Kant
tries to answer ultimate and universal questions.
Metaphysics
Kant believed that things that cannot be percieved in _______ cannot be known.
experience
John Locke believed the mind to be a________.
Tabula rasa (blank slate)
Religion based on reason and natural law, the enlightenment's religion.
Deism
Belief that god started the universe like a perfect clock and then left it alone.
Deism
Some people reacted to the enlightenment and did not believe that ________ could explain the universe.
reason alone
Monarchs who used their power to bring about positive political and social changes.
enlightened despots
When britian tried to tighten its control over the colonies after the French and Indian war, the colonies_____.
reacted
because the american colonists believed they were being taxed without their representation and thus denied their natural rights they _________.
declared their independence
Created a government with Montesquieu's separation of powers and federal system.
U.S. Constitution
Governmental power (sovereignty) is divided between a central government and regional governments.
Federalism
Inaugurated the liberal and democratic movements of the 19th century.
French Revolution
Name for France's social classes.
Estates
King of France at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Louis XIV
First Estate.
Catholic Clergy
Second Estate.
Nobililty
Bourgeoisie, artisans, and peasants.
Third Estate
Middle class.
Bourgeoisie
Large Gap between the rich and the poor, heavy tax burden on the Third Estate, First & Second Estate don't pay taxes, Elightenment ideas of freedom & Equality, growth of the middle class, & wide spread.
Causes of the French Revolution
In 1789 Louis XVI called a meeting of the ________ for the first time in over 150 years.
Estates General
Louis XVI called the estates general because he needed to _______.
raise money
Upper two estates wanted to vote as _________.
estates
Third estate wanted to vote as________.
delegates
Louis XVI refused the third estate's request for a_______.
Mass meeting (voting as delagtes)
The third estate declared itself to be the _________.
National assembly
Members of the national assembly swore to remain in session until a constitution was completed.
tennis court oath
Ordered all three estates to negotiate in the national assembly.
Louis XVI
Ordered swiss troops to Paris.
Louis XVI
French Royal Prison, attacked by Parisians to defend the national assembly.
Bastille
Symbolic beginning of the French revolution.
Storming of the bastille
Voted to end special privileges of Nobility & clergy (Old Regime).
National Assembly
National assembly guaranteed freedom of speech, press, and religion. Proclaimed all male citizens were equal but did not grant rights to women.
"Declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen."
symbolic beginning of the French Revolution.
Limited constitutional monarchy.
Working-class men and women who pushed for more radical action during the French Revolution.
sans-culottes
Extreme radicals who demanded "true democracy."
Jacobins
Unpopular queen of France.
Marie Antoinette
National assembly declared war on______.
Austria
Seized control of assembly, removed king from office. (French Revolution.)
Jacobins
Jacobins killed people they claimed were ________.
Counter-revolutionaries.
Called by radicals to rewrite french constitution.
National Convention
National convention abolished monarchy and declared france a _______.
Republic
Convicted of treason and executed by the national convention.
Louis XVI
During the French Revolution European monarchies fearing the spread of revolution to their countries.
allied against France
Because of threats from within, and without, the convention formed the ________.
Committee of public safety
Jacobin became the head of the committee of public safety.
Robespierre
To stop counter-revolution the committee began the ______. (500,000 people arrested,40,000 guillotined)
Reign of terror
Used by committee to deal with invading armies.
mass moblization
Whole society helps to defeat enemy.
mass moblization
members of the convention turned on him because they heard for their own safety. He was guillotined along with many of his followers.
Robespierre
Robespierre's death ended the ______.
Reign of terror
Took control of the convention after the reign of terror.
Bourgeoisie
Conservative government set up by the convention after the end of the reign of terror.
Directory
put in command of france's armies by the directory.
Napoleon
Seized power from the directory in the coup d'etat.
Napoleon
Quick overthrow of government by a small group
Coup d'etat
As first consul of the french republic napoleon assumed_______.
dictatorial powers
Used soldiers to restore order to france.
Napoleon
made the law clear and consistent in france.
Napoleonic code
Bonaparte became emperor napoleon I by _______.
the will of the people
Napoleon expanded his empire to include most of _______.
Europe
British Admiral who defeated Napoleon at the battle of Trafalgar.
Horatio nelson
Because of his defeat at the battle of Trafalgar, Napoleon gave up on ________.
invading Britain
Napoleon tried to keep british goods out of _______.
European ports
Napoleon invaded IT because IT refused to stop selling goods to Britain.
russia
Was a disaster because of winter conditions.
napoleon's invasion of russia
Tactic used by russians against Napoleon.
scorched-earth
On retreat from russia napoleon lost_________.
4/5 of his troops
Grand alliance defeats napoleon at leipzig germany.
battle of nations
After the battle of nations the grand alliance took paris and exiled napoleon to_______.
elba
napoleon escaped elba and upon returning to france______.
won widespread support
Napoleon's brief comeback.
the 100 days
Napoleon's final defeat to britain and prussia.
waterloo
After waterloo napoleon was exiled to________.
st.Helena
Date of waterloo.
A.D. 1815
Napoleon's lasting influence was that his soldiers spread the ideals of the ______ across europe.
French revolution
After the defeat of napoleon it was held to create a new balance of power to preserve the peace.
congress of vienna
Leading figure at the congress of vienna.
metternich