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209 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Government where the power of the crown is unchecked.
Absolute Monarchy
Another name for the Age of Monarchs.
Age of Absolutism.
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1500s and early 1600s.
Was both the Holy Roman Emperor and the king of Spain.
Charles V
Dynasty of Charles V and Philip II.
When Charles V divided his empire his son Phillip II became _________.
King of Spain
Strongest monarch during Spanish supremacy
Philip II
Philip II and other absolute monarchs believed they were kings by ________.
Divine Right
The idea that royal power is granted by God.
Divine Right of Kings
He used wealth (gold & silver) from colonies to build the largest and strongest army in Europe.
Philip II
Philip II saw Spain as the defender of the __________.
Catholic Faith
He involved Spain in wars against the enemies of Catholicism. (Protestants, Muslims etc.)
Philip II
Philip II attempted to force all non-Catholics to ________________.
convert or leave Spain
Was used as a reign of terror to extract all non-catholic elements from Spain.
Spanish Inquisition
This source of wealth enabled Spain to become the strongest nation in Europe.
American Colonies
Philip II sent it to invade England.
Spanish Armada
It's defeat in 1588 was the beginning of Spain's decline as the leading European power.
Spanish Armada
In the late 1500s, France was torn by reiigious conflict between ___________.
Catholics & Huguenots
French Protestant Calvinists
First Bourbon King
Henry of Navarre/Henry IV
Established the Edict Nantes
Henry IV
Gave French Protestants religious freedom in 1598.
Edict of Nantes
Real Ruler during the reign of Louis XIII
Cardinal Richelieu
Involved Catholic France in the 30 years war on the side of the protestants.
Cardinal Richelieu
Was triggered by a rebellion of Bohemian protestants.
Thirty Years War
Started over religion ended up over the balance of power.
Thirty Years War
Ended the 30 years war.
Peace of Westphalia
Made France the strongest country in Europe
Peace of Westphalia
Louis XIV Minister of Finance
A tax on imports
Protective tariff
Sun King ruled France from 1643 to 1715.
Louis XIV
He weakened the power of the nobles by inviting them to live in Luxury in his palace.
Louis XIV
Strongest French Monarch
Louis XIV
In 1685 Louis XIV revoked the _______.
Edict of Nantes
Strongest nation in Europe during the 1600's
Small nations band together to keep a strong nation from dominating.
Balance of Power
War fought to Keep Louis XIV's grandson off the throne of Spain
War of Spanish Succession
Ended the War of Spanish Succession
Treaty of Utrecht
Broke French Treasury and military power
War of Spanish Succession
Prevented the alliance of France and Spain
Treaty of Utrecht
His policies brought France near financial ruin and created class conflict
Louis XIV
Philip II's English rival.
Elizabeth I
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603.
Elizabeth I
English captains that captured Spanish Treasure ships and defeated the Spanish Armada.
Sea Dogs
Ruled England from 1558 to 1603, last Tudor monarch.
Elizabeth I
First Stuart Monarch believed in the Divine Right of Kings.
James I
Those who believed in the Divine Right of Kings believed Monarchs were only answerable to ___.
Succeeded James I as King of England.
Charles I
His reign ended in England's civil war
Charles I
It was fought over who should rule England: Monarch or Parliament.
English Civil War
Those who supported Charles I in the English Civil War
Those who supported Parliament in the English Civil War
Roundheads were mainly _____.(religion)
Led parliament's army to victory in the English Civil War.
Oliver Cromwell
The English Parliament tried and executed _________.
Charles I
The House of Commons abolished monarchy and declared Engand a republic called the ____.
Cromwell drove out Parliament and set up a ________.
military dictatorship
Name for Cromwell's military dictatorship
Cromwell's dictatorship enforced a _______.
Puritan moral Code
Cromwell did not tolerate open worship for ___.
Richard Cromwell succeeded his father as Lord Protector of England but when England tired of strict Puritan ways he was deposed by a ___.
Military coup
He was invited by Parliament to come back from exile and become king.
Charles II
The return of Charles II as King of England
Restoration date
A.D. 1660
The Restoration gave England a ______.
Constitutional monarchy
Catholic brother and successor to Charles II.
James II
English feared that James II would make Catholicism the _______.
State Religion
Name for the bloodless deposing of James II.
Glorious Revolution
William & Mary were given joint rule of England after the Glorious Revolution but they first had accept the ____.
English Bill of Rights
The Enlgish Bill of Rights made sure Parliament had more power than the ruler and established ________.
limited monarchy
Date of the Glorious Revolution
AD 1688
Was selected by leading German princes but in reality did not have much power.
Holy Roman Emperor
Allowed Maria Theresa to inherit the Throne of Austria
Pragmatic Sanction
Maria Theresa' dynasty.
Dynasty that ruled Prussia during the Age of Monarchs.
Centralized Prussian Government. Made Prussian army the most efficient fighting force in Europe.
Frederick William I
Most powerful ruler in Prussian History
Frederick II (the Great)
He rejected the Pragmatic Sanction and started the war of Austrian Succession
Frederick II (the Great)
Maria Theresa keeps the throne of Austria, Austria loses Silesia.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Starts as a struggle between Austria & Prussia becomes a struggle between England & France.
Seven Years War
Name of the Seven Years war in America
French and Indian War
In 1650 Russia was an isolated and _________.
backward country
Title of the Russian ruler.
Czar who worked to modernize/Westernize Russia
Peter the Great
Peter the Great was an ________.
absolute monarch
Peter fought the Swedes and the Turks to gain a ________.
warm water port
Peter the Great built the new capital of Russia_______.
St. Petersburg
She followed the lead of Peter the Great in embracing Western ideas and expanding Russia's borders.
Cathrine the Great
Intellectual movembent of the 17th & 18th centuries.
The Enlightenment celebrated the powers of ______.
Human Reason
Enlightenment thinkers promoted religious ____________.
Enlightenment thinkers sough to construct government free of_____________.
Enlightenment thinkers believed all problem could be solved with__________.
The Enlightenment was prompted by the __________ (1500s & 1600s).
Scientific Revolution
Sun is the center of the Solar System.
Helicentric theory
He devoloped the Heliocentric theory.
He developed a telescope and supported the Helicentric theory.
Probably more responsible for the development of scientific method than an other individual.
Galileo Galilei
Galileo was forced to recant by the ____________.
Catholic Church
Demonstrated that planets move in ellipses/ovals.
Johannes Kepler
His discoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyone else's
Isaac Newton
He laid the foundations for the scientific theories that susquently revolutionized the world
Isaac Newton
Newtn developed the theory of ____________.
Newton discovered that the universe is governed by__________.
natural laws
Newton's discoveries led people o view the universe as _________.
he developed Calculus.
Isaac Newton
Hobbes, Locke& Rousseau were all considered _________.
social contract theorists
Because Thomas Hobbes believed governments were created to protect people from their own selfishness he believed they _______..
never had the right to revolt.
Form of Gorernment advocated by Thomas Hobbes.
Absolute Monarchy
He believed people had Natural Rights to life, liberty and property.
John Locke
John Locke believed the foundation of Government was a __________.
Social Contract
John Locke Believed that if people's natural rights were not protected they had the_________.
Right to revolt
John Locke wrote in defense of the___________.
Glorious Revolution
French Thinkers of the enlightenment.
Philosophes(not philosophers)
Philosophe who campaigned against intolerance. (wrote Candide).
He combined enlightenment thinking into an Encyclopdia.
Banned Diderot's Encyclopedia.
Catholic Church
Diderot was _________ for his writings in the Encyclopedia.
Advocated a free market economy in the Wealth of Nations.
Adam Smith
Name for complete free market economy (leave it alone).
Laissez faire
He believed the best way to protect people's liberties was by separating the power of government into legislative, executive and judicial branches.
Criticized the enlightenment's excessive emphasis on reason, he believed people needed to rely more on and instinct.
Meetings for the discussion of ideas.
He believed you should set aside traditional beliefs and rely on observation and experiment. Early proponent of the scientific method.
Francis Bacon
He believed you should doubt everything which cannont be proved and in the search for truth you should start not with faith but with doubt.
Rene Descartes
The only thing Descartes found that he could not doubt was his ________.
own existence
"I think therefore I am."
Rene Descartes
Doubt and question all ideas.
A denial of the possibility of knowledge
Total skeptic.
David Hume
He denied that there was any logical basis for knowing that one thing caused another. Denied knowledge of cause & effect.
David Hume
He believed that reason could not be used to explain questions of metaphysics.
Immanuel Kant
Tries to answer ultimate and universal questions.
Kant believed that things that cannot be perceived in ________ cannot be known.
John Locke believed the mind to be a __________.
Tabula rasa(blank slate)
Religion based on reason and natural law, the Enlightenment's religion.
Belief that God started the universe like a perfect clock and then left it alone.
Some people reacted to Enlightenment and did not believe that _________ could explain the universe.
reason alone
Monarchs who used their power to bring about positive political and social changes.
Enlightened Despots
When Britain tried to tighten its control over the colonies after the French and Indian War, the colonies _____.
Because the American colonists believed they were being taxed without their representation and thus denied their natural rights they ___.
declared their independence.
Created a government with Montesquieu's separation of powers and a federal system.
U.S. Constitution
Governmental power (sovereignty) is divided between a central government and regional governments.
Inaugurated the liberal and democratic movementsof the 19th century.
French Revolution
Name for Frence's social classes.
King of France at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Louis XVI
First Estate.
Catholic Clergy
Second Estate.
Bourgeoisie, artisans, and peasants.
Third Estate
Middle Class
Large Gap between the rich and the poor, heavy tax burden on the Third Estate, First & Second Estate don't pay taxes, Elightenment ideas of freedom & Equality, growth of the middle class, & wide spread famine.
Causes of the French Revolution.
In 1789 Louis XVI called a meeting of the _________ for the first time in over 150 years.
Estates General.
Louis XVI called the Estates General because he needed to _____.
raise money
Upper two estates wanted to vote as ______.
Third Estate wanted to vote as______.
Louis XVI refused the Third Estate’s request for a _________.
Mass Meeting (voting as delegtes)
The Third Estate declared itself to be the _____________.
The National Convention.
Members of the National Assembly swore to remain in session until a constituion was completed.
Tennis court oath.
Ordered all three estates to negotiate in the National Assembly.
Louis XVI
Ordered Swiss troops to Paris.
Louis XVI
French Royal Prison, attacked by Parisians to defend the National Assembly.
Symbolic beginning of the French Revolution.
Storming of the Bastille.
Voted to end special privileges of Nobility & Clergy (Old Regime).
National Assembly.
National Assembly guaranteed freedom of speech, press, and religion. Proclaimed all male citizens were equal but did not grant rights to women.
“Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the citizen.”
In 1791 the National Assembly created a ________.
Limited Constitutional Monarchy.
Working-class men and women who pushed for more radical action during the French Revolution.
Extreme radicals who demanded “true democracy.”
Unpopular Queen of France.
Marie Antoinette
National Assembly declared war on ________.
Seized control of Assembly remove king from office. (French Revolution)
Jacobins killed people they claimed were _____________.
Called by Radicals to rewrite French Constitution.
National Convention
National Convention abolished Monarchy and declared France a _______.
Convicted of Treason and executed by the National Convention.
Louis XVI
During the French Revolution European monarchies fearing the spread of revolution to their countries ____.
allied against France
Because of threats from within, and without, the Convention formed the ____________.
Committee of Public Safety
Jacobin became the head of the Committee of Public Safety.
To stop counter-revolution the committee began the ________. (500,000 people arrested, 40,000 guillotined.
Reign of Terror
Used by committee to deal with invading armies.
Mass Moblization
Whole society helps to defeat enemy.
Mass Moblization
Members of the Convention turned on him because they feared for their own safety. He was guillotined along with many of his followers.
Robespierre’s death ended the _________.
Reign of Terror
Took control of the Convention after the Reign of Terror.
Conservative Government set up by the Convention after the end of the Reign of Terror.
Put in Command of France’s armies by the Directory.
Seized power from the Directory in a Coup d’ etat.
Quick overthrow of government by a small group.
Coup d’ etat.
As first Consul of the French Republic Napoleon assumed ____.
Dictoral powers.
Used soldiers to restore order to France.
Made the law clear and consistent in France.
Napoleonic code
Bonaparte became Emperor Napoleon I by __________.
The will of the people
Napoleon expanded his empire to include most of ________.
British Admiral who defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar.
Horatio Nelson.
Because of his defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar, Napoleon gave up on _____.
invading Britain
Napoleon tried to keep British goods out of __________.
European ports
Napoleon invaded IT because IT refused to stop selling goods to Britain.
Was a disaster because of winter conditions.
Napoleon's invasion of Russia.
Tactic used by Russians against Napoleon.
On retreat from Russia Napoleon lost _______.
4/5 of his troops
Grand Alliance defeats Napoleon at Leipzig Germany.
Battle of Nations.
After the Battle of Nations the Grand Alliance took Paris and exiled Napoleon to _______.
Napoleon escaped Elba and upon returning to France______.
won widespread support
Napoleon’s brief comeback.
The 100 days.
Napoleon’s final defeat to Britain and Prussia.
After Waterloo Napoleon was exiled to _________.
St. Helena
Date of Waterloo.
A.D. 1815
Napoleon's lasting influence was that his soldiers spread the ideals of the _____ across Europe.
French Revolution
After the defeat of Napoleon it was held to create a new balance of power to preserve the peace.
Congress of Vienna
Leading figure at the Congress of Vienna.