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162 Cards in this Set

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Governmental power (sovereignty) is divided between a central government and regional governments.
Federalism
Inaugurated the liberal and democratic movementsof the 19th century.
French Revolution
Name for France's social classes.
Estates
King of France at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Louis XVI
First Estate.
Catholic Clergy
Second Estate.
Noblility
Bourgeoisie, artisans, and peasants.
Third Estate
Middle Class
Bourgeoisie
Large Gap between the rich and the poor, heavy tax burden on the Third Estate, First & Second Estate don't pay taxes, Elightenment ideas of freedom & Equality, growth of the middle class, & wide spread famine.
Causes of the French Revolution.
In 1789 Louis XVI called a meeting of the _________ for the first time in over 150 years.
Estates General.
Louis XVI called the Estates General because he needed to _____.
raise money
Upper two estates wanted to vote as ______.
Estates
Third Estate wanted to vote as______.
delegates.
Louis XVI refused the Third Estate’s request for a _________.
Mass Meeting (voting as delegtes)
The Third Estate declared itself to be the _____________.
National Convention.
Members of the National Assembly swore to remain in session until a constituion was completed.
Tennis court oath.
Ordered all three estates to negotiate in the National Assembly.
Louis XVI
Ordered Swiss troops to Paris.
Louis XVI
French Royal Prison, attacked by Parisians to defend the National Assembly.
Bastille.
Symbolic beginning of the French Revolution.
Storming of the Bastille.
Voted to end special privileges of Nobility & Clergy (Old Regime).
National Assembly.
National Assembly guaranteed freedom of speech, press, and religion. Proclaimed all male citizens were equal but did not grant rights to women.
“Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the citizen.”
In 1791 the National Assembly created a ________.
Limited Constitutional Monarchy.
Working-class men and women who pushed for more radical action during the French Revolution.
sans-culottes
Extreme radicals who demanded “true democracy.”
Jacobins.
Unpopular Queen of France.
Marie Antoinette
National Assembly declared war on ________.
Austria
Seized control of Assembly, removed king from office. (French Revolution)
Jacobins.
Jacobins killed people they claimed were _____________.
Counter-revolutionaries
Called by Radicals to rewrite French Constitution.
National Convention
National Convention abolished Monarchy and declared France a _______.
Republic
Convicted of Treason and executed by the National Convention.
Louis XVI
During the French Revolution European monarchies fearing the spread of revolution to their countries ____.
allied against France
Because of threats from within, and without, the Convention formed the ____________.
Committee of Public Safety
Jacobin became the head of the Committee of Public Safety.
Robespierre
To stop counter-revolution the committee began the ________. (500,000 people arrested, 40,000 guillotined.
Reign of Terror
Used by committee to deal with invading armies.
Mass Moblization
Whole society helps to defeat enemy.
Mass Moblization
Members of the Convention turned on him because they feared for their own safety. He was guillotined along with many of his followers.
Robespierre
Robespierre’s death ended the _________.
Reign of Terror
Took control of the Convention after the Reign of Terror.
Bourgeoisie
Conservative Government set up by the Convention after the end of the Reign of Terror.
Directory
Put in Command of France’s armies by the Directory.
Napoleon.
Seized power from the Directory in a Coup d’ etat.
Napoleon.
Quick overthrow of government by a small group.
Coup d’ etat.
As first Consul of the French Republic Napoleon assumed ____.
Dictatorial powers.
Used soldiers to restore order to France.
Napoleon.
Made the law clear and consistent in France.
Napoleonic code
Bonaparte became Emperor Napoleon I by __________.
The will of the people
Napoleon expanded his empire to include most of ________.
Europe
British Admiral who defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar.
Horatio Nelson.
Because of his defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar, Napoleon gave up on _____.
invading Britain
Napoleon tried to keep British goods out of __________.
European ports
Napoleon invaded IT because IT refused to stop selling goods to Britain.
Russia
Was a disaster because of winter conditions.
Napoleon's invasion of Russia.
Tactic used by Russians against Napoleon.
Scorcehd-earth.
On retreat from Russia Napoleon lost _______.
4/5 of his troops
Grand Alliance defeats Napoleon at Leipzig Germany.
Battle of Nations.
After the Battle of Nations the Grand Alliance took Paris and exiled Napoleon to _______.
Elba
Napoleon escaped Elba and upon returning to France______.
won widespread support
Napoleon’s brief comeback.
The 100 days.
Napoleon’s final defeat to Britain and Prussia.
Waterloo.
After Waterloo Napoleon was exiled to _________.
St. Helena
Date of Waterloo.
A.D. 1815
Napoleon's lasting influence was that his soldiers spread the ideals of the _____ across Europe.
French Revolution
After the defeat of Napoleon it was held to create a new balance of power to preserve the peace.
Congress of Vienna
Leading figure at the Congress of Vienna.
Metternich
Question
Answer
Intellectual movembent of the 17th & 18th centuries.
Enlightenment
The Enlightenment celebrated the powers of ______.
Human Reason
Enlightenment thinkers promoted religious ____________.
toleration
Enlightenment thinkers soghtoconstruct government free of_____________.
tyranny
Enlightenment thinkers believed all problem could be solved with__________.
reason
The Enlightenment was prompted b the __________.
Scientific Revolution
Sun is the center of the Solar System.
Helicentric theory
He devoloped the Heliocentric theory.
Copernicus
He developed a telescope and supported the Helicentric theory.
Galileo
Probably more responsible for the development of scientific method than an other individual.
Galileo Galilei
Galileo was forced to recant by the ____________.
Catholic Church
Demonstrated that planets move in ellipses/ovals.
Johannes Kepler
His discoveries changed the view of the universe more than anyone else's
Isaac Newton
He laid the foundations for the scientific theories that susquently revolutionized the world
Isaac Newton
Newtn developed the theory of ____________.
Gravity
Newton discovered that the universe is governed by__________.
natural laws
Newton's discoveries led people o view the universe as _________.
mechanical
he developed Calculus.
Isaac Newton
Hobbes, Locke& Rousseau were all considered _________.
social contract theorists
He believed governments were created to protect people from their own selfishness.
Thomas Hobbes
He did not believe people ever had the right to revolt.
Thomas Hobbes
He believed human nature was characterized by violence and disorder.
Thomas Hobbes
Form of Gorernment advocated by Thomas Hobbes.
Absolute Monarchy
He believed people had Natural Rights to life, liberty and property.
John Locke
John Locke believed the foundation of Government was a __________.
Social Contract
John Locke Believed that if people's natural rights were not protected they had the_________.
Right to revolt
First writer to put together in coheent form the basic ideas of constitutional democracy.
John Locke
John Locke wrote in defense of the___________.
Glorious Revolution
French Thinkers of the enlightenment.
Philosophes(not philosophers)
Philosophe who campaigned against intolerance.
Voltaire
Wrote Candide.
Voltaire
French auther: the apostle of freethinking and liberalism.
Voltaire
He combined enlightenment thinking into an Encyclopdia.
Diderot
Banned Diderot's Encyclopedia.
Catholic Church
Diderot was _________ for iswritings in the Encyclopedia.
imprisoned
Advocated a free market economy in the Wealth of Nations.
Adam Smith
Leading figure in the development of Economic Theory.
Adam Smith
Name for complete free market economy (leave it alone).
Laissez
He advocated a complete separation of powers.
Montesquieu
Influenced the writing of the American Constitution
Montesquieu
He believed the best way to protect people's liberties was by separating the power of government int legislative, executive and judicial branches.
Montesquieu
He argues that freedom is the birthright of all humans.
Rousseau
Criticized the enlightenment's excessive emphasis on reason.
Rousseau
He believed people needed to rely more on emotion and instinct
Rousseau
Author whose writings are said to have been a significant factor in the rise of socialism, nationalism, romanticism, totalitarianism and anti-rationalism.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Meetings for the discussion of ideas.
Salons
He believed you should set aside traditional beliefs and rely on observation and experiment.
Francis Bacon
He was an early proponent of the scientific method.
Francis Bacon
First greeat philosopher to realize that science and technology could transform the world.
Francis Bacon
He believed you should doubt everything which cannont be proved.
Rene Descartes
Descarted believed in a search for truth one should start with faith, but with___________.
doubt
The only thing Descartes found that he could not doubt was his ________.
own existence
"I think therefore I am."
Rene Descartes
He was the first to place tat the center of philosophy the question: "How do I know"?
Rene Descartes
Doubt and question all ideas.
Skepticism
A denial of the possibility of knowledge
Skepticism
The skeptic sees all truth as being based on _______.
Presuppositions(assumptions)
Presuppositions/assumptions by nature can't be ___________.
Proved
He questioned value of human reason.
David Hume
Total skeptic.
David Hume
He denied that there was any logical basis for knowing that one thing caused another. Denied knowledge of cause & effect.
David Hume
He concluded that there was no necessary connections between any two events in the universe.
David Hume
He believed that reason could not be used to explain questions of metaphysics.
Immanuel Kant
Tries to answer ultimate and universal questions.
Metaphysics
Kant believed that things that cannot be perceived in ________ cannot be known.
experience
"Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it become a universal law."(only do that which you would be willing to make a universl law.)
Categorical Imperative
developed the Categorical Imperative as a guide for ethics
Immanuel Kant
The study of knowledge. (How we know?)
Epistemology
Study of being.
Ontology
Study of what is real.
Ontology
View that knowledge is derived from reason.
Rationalism
Working of the mind on mateial provided by the mind itself
Reason
Believed knowledge is a priori.
Rationalists
Truthat can be known WITHOUT observation.
a priori
They believe the human mind contains innate ideas.
Rationalists
Mind and the world are seen to be in conformity.
Rationalism
Descartes, Spinoza & Leibniz
Classical Rationalists
View that knowledge is derived from sense experience.(observation)
Empiricism
Believe knowledge is a posteriori.
Empiricists
Truth that can be established only through observation.
a posteriori
Locke, Berkeley and Hume.
Classical Empiricists
Rejects the existence of innate ideas.
Empiricism
Believe all knowledge is acquired by sense experience.
empiricists
John Locke believed the mind to be a __________.
Tabula rasa(blank slate)
Empiricists believe the mind can contain no knowledg which was not first contained in the ________.
senses
Religion based on reason and natural law.
Deism
Belief that God started the universe like a perfect clock and then left it alone.
Deism
Enlightenment's religion.
Deism
Some people reacted to Enlightenment and did not believe that _________ could explain the universe.
reason alone
In a religious reaction to the enlightenment people sought religions which emphasized the ________.
emotions
Founded the American Quaker Colony.
William Penn
William Penn and Quker advocated _________.
Pacifism
Opposition to the use of violence.
Pacifism
Inaugurated the liberal and democratic movementsof the 19th century.
French Revolution