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116 Cards in this Set

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After Menno Simons death Anabaptists in the Netherlands were called ______.
Mennonites
In some Italian cities Jews were forced to live in a separate part of the city called a ________.
ghetto
In the 1400s European explorers searched for a better _______.
trade route to Asia
In the 1300s Europeans depended on Asia & India for ________.
Spices
In the 1300's controlled the spice trade in Asia & Europe
Arab & Venetian merchants
Merchants seeking profitable trade with Asia.
Motivation for exploration
Christian leaders sought to halt expansion of Islamic empires and spread Christian teachings
Motivation for exploration
Explorers were aided by improved sailing and navigation _______.
Technology
First country to venture out on the Atlantic ocean in search of spices and Gold.
Portugal
Set up a school for Navigators
Prince Henry the Navigator
Under his patronage sailors discovered: the Azores, the Madeira Islands and the Cape Verde Islands.
Prince Henry the Navigator
The discoveries made under the patronage of Prince Henry became the foundation of the ___________.
Portuguese Empire
Discovered the sea route around Africa past the Cape of Good Hope
Bartholomeu Dias
Portuguese captain who was first to reach India. (Calicut)
Vasco da Gama
In the 1400s, the Portuguese established a major presence on __________.
the coasts of Africa
Portuguese defeated the Muslims and established control of the _________.
Indian Ocean
Seizing key ports around the Indian Ocean they came to dominate European-Asian trade.
Portuguese
An end to internal and external conflict enable Spain to enter the race for _______.
Asian riches
Financed Columbus' voyages
Ferdinand and Isabella
Columbus sought a route to the East by _____.
going West
Explorer who concluded that the "New World" must be a continent and not part of Asia
Amerigo Vespucci
Line drawn by the Pope giving the "New World" to Spain & Africa & India to Portugal for colonization
Line of Demarcation
Adjusted the line of demarcation to the West, giving Portugal control of Brazil.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Commanded the first expedition to circumnavigate the world.
Ferdinand Magellan
To circle the world.
circumnavigate
His voyage proved the world was round & much larger than anyone believed.
Ferdinand Magellan
His voyage proved the lands where Columbus landed were not part of Asia.
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese also colonized ___________ in South America.
Brazil
Lost out in Africa when other European countries began to colonize because they did not venture inland or establish colonies.
Portuguese
In the 1500s & 1600 became the most important trade item from Africa
Slaves
The slave trade in Africa was broadened by __.
European Participation
The slave trade filled the demand for ____.
cheap labor
Europeans seeking slaves seldom ventured into __________.
Africa's interior
Relied on African rulers and traders to seize captives and bring them to the coast.
European Slave Traders
Ruler of the Kongo, who tried to halt the slave trade in his lands.
Alfonso I
Some African states disappeared because of the _____.
slave trade
Some new African States arose whose way of life depended on the ___.
slave trade
African slave trading state, unified by Osei Tutu in what is present day Ghana.
Asante kingdom
African states often waged war against one another to dominate the _________.
slave trade
Its leaders used wealth from the slave trade to build a strong army in what is present-day Nigeria.
Oyo Empire
First Europeans to challenge Portuguese domination of Asian trade.
Dutch
First permanent European settlement in Africa built by the Dutch to supply ships sailing around Africa.
Cape Town
Dutch farmers who settled around Cape Town in South Africa.
Boers
Muslim empire in India from 1526 to 1857.
Mughal Empire
Had the sovereign powers of a state, built an army and dominated Southeast Asia.
Dutch East India Company
Took over the Philippines and made it a key link in its trading empire.
Spain
At one point the Mughal empire was stronger than any European country, but eventually it lost power and the British and French fought for control of _____.
India
Both the British and the French East India Companies used these India soldiers in their armies.
sepoys
By the late 1700s it controlled most of India
British East India Company
Dynasty ruled China from 1368 to 1644, allowed trade with Europeans and accepted European missionaries.
Ming Dynasty
Seized Beijing in 1644 and set up the Qing Dynasty in China.
Manchu's
Manchurian dynasty of China.
Qing
Both the Ming & the Qing practiced a policy of ___.
Restricted foreign trade
Because of its exclusion of foreigners it became known as the "Hermit Kingdom."
Korea
Unlike the Chinese or the Koreans, the Japanese at first ______________.
welcomed Westerners
When many Japanese were converted by the Jesuits, the Tokugawa Shoguns worried that the Japanese Christians would be loyal to the Pope over ___________.
Japanese leaders
Expelled foreign missionaries and persecuted Japanese Christians.
Tokugawa Shoguns
For 200 years Japan remained __________.
isolated
Columbus first meeting with Native Americans began a recurring cycle of _________ across the Western Hemisphere.
encounter, conquest & death
Spanish who came to America "to serve God and his Majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to do."
Conquistadors
Conquistador who conquered Aztec Mexico for Spain.
Hernan Cortes
Empire that ruled Mexico before Spanish invasion.
Aztec
Ruler of Aztec Empire at time of Spanish invasion.
Moctezuma
Spanish advantage in fighting Aztecs & Incas.
horses and guns
Conquistador who conquered Peru's Inca Empire.
Francisco Pizarro
Empire in Peru conquered by Spanish.
Inca
Included islands in the West Indies, Central, America, Mexico, much of South America, and parts of present day U.S.
Spanish American Empire
Spain's two goals for American empire.
exploit its wealth & convert native Americans to Christianity
Gave Conquistadors the right to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans in a particular area. (granted by Spanish monarch)
Encomienda
European weapon that killed (by far) the most native Americans.
disease
Most valuable exports from Spanish colonies.
gold & silver
Representatives appointed by the Spanish Monarch who ruled in his name.
viceroys
In the 1600s American colonies based their economies on agricultural products that required ____________.
intensive labor.
At his insistence the crown did pass laws against the enslavement and mistreatment of Native Americans.
Las Casas
Native Americans who labored to pay impossible debts created by landlords.
Peons
To meet the intensive labor demands in the American colonies, plantation owner's used _______.
Enslaved Africans
People born in Europe filled the highest positions in Spanish Colonial government.
Peninsulares
American born descendents of Spanish settlers, second highest on social scale.
Creoles
People of mixed European and Native American descent.
Mestizos
People of mixed European & African descent.
Mulattoes
Mestizos & Mulattoes were the third rung of the colonial __________.
social scale
In the 1600s the French, Dutch, English and Spanish all competed for lands in _________.
North America
By the 1700 North America was dominated by __.
France & England
Explored much of Eastern Canada and claimed it for France.
Jacques Cartier
First permanent French settlement in North America, established in 1608.
Quebec
Most of their colonists were involved in fur trapping, fur trading and fishing.
French
In the early 1700s New France's population remained __________.
small
First permanent English colony established in 1607.
Jamestown
English protestants who settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts, because the rejected the Church of England.
Pilgrims
Agreement reached for governing the Plymouth colony.
Mayflower compact
War between France and England that started in the colonies and spread to the rest of the world where it became know as the Seven Years war.
French & Indian War
Ended the French & Indian war in 1763 and gave the British much of French territory in North America.
Treaty of Paris.
The slave trade was part of the ___________.
triangular trade
The trading pattern that developed among the American colonies, the West Indies, the coast of Africa, and the British isles.
triangular trade
Left their home ports carrying manufactured goods.
European ships
In West Africa ships captains exchanged their goods with local rulers for _________.
enslaved people
Enslaved Africans were sold in the colonies and the money was used to buy _________.
sugar, molasses, cotton and tobacco.
Ships returned to Europe to sell the goods _____________.
purchased in America
The transportation of African people to slave markets in the Americas.
Middle Passage
During the middle passage Africans were chained together in such a tight space that they could neither _________.
stand nor lie at full length
During the middle passage many Africans died of ________.
suffocation and disease
Many Africans resisted their enslavement by __________.
fleeing or rebellion
In the West Indies and some other areas the enslaved population came to outnumber the ___.
free population
In areas where the slave populations out numbered the free population the free population lived in constant fear of
slave uprisings
Silver and gold flowing from the colonies to Europe resulted in great inflation.
Price Revolution
An economic system of private ownership of business that arose as a result of the price revolution.
capitalism
People who took financial risks and were the key to the rise of capitalism.
entrepreneurs
Fierce competition for trade and empires led to a new economic system called_____________.
Mercantilism
Theory that a nation's power depended upon its wealth (Gold & Silver Reserves.
Mercantilism
According to mercantilism a nation should increase its supply of gold and silver by carrying on a _____________.
favorable balance of trade
More exports than imports.
favorable balance of trade
In the mercantilist system colonies helped a country maintain a __________.
favorable balance of trade.
The enormous widespread exchange of agricultural goods, livestock, slave labor, communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres that occurred after 1492.
Columbian exchange
The Columbian exchange transformed European, American, African & Asian _____.
ways of life
Tobacco, potatoes, and tomatoes moved from the _______________.
Western to Eastern hemisphere
The horse and other livestock moved from the __________.
Eastern to Western hemisphere