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63 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What act allowed all nations to have equal rights to trade anywhere in China?
Open Door Policy.
In 1898, what did the Qing Emperor do to shock China's coservative leaders?
He tried to institute a series of reforms to change the examination and governmental administration and to promote industry.
What did the Conservative leaders do to about the Qing Emperor's reforms?
They notified the emperor's aunt, the empress dowager Cuxi.
What's a dowager?
Widow of an earlier ruler.
What did Cuxi do to the Qing Emperor?
She quickly had the emperor imprisoned, and for the next 10 years she ruled China in his place.
Empress Cuxi choose to fight outside interferences by doing everythign could do to stir up hatret for foreigners, especially the missionaries. What were the affects of this?
A patriotic movement called the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists.
What was another name for the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists?
What occured after the formation of the Boxers?
The Boxer Rebellion.
What occured during the Boxer Rebellions?
They would roam throughout China attacking foreigners at every opportunity.
What happened to these foreiners in china? Where would they go for safety?
They fled to their embassies in Beijing for protection. Until they became under siege by the Boxers.
What did the Imperialist nations do about the Boxer Rebellion?
They organized forces and broke the siege placed on Beijing.
What Nations were part of supressing the Boxer Rebellion in 1901?
Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, and the US.
What nation used the Boxer Rebellion as an excuse to move 100,000 troops to the northern Chinese province of Manchuria?
What two nations protected China from being divided among the Imperialist nations?
Japan and Russia.
Did the Boxer Rebellion ever succeed to remove all foreigners from China?
What political party was dedicated into nationalizing China to become an independent nation.
What did Kuomintang mean?
Nationalist People's Party.
Who was the founder of the Kuomintang political party?
Sun Yat-sen.
where was Sun Yat-sen educated?
Hawaii, United States; as well as a British College in Hong Kong.
What did the nationalists want in China?
Constitutional Government; Industrialization.
Why did the nationalists want China to industrialize?
To defend them from foreign nations.
What was the former method of government called after the overthrow of the corrupt Qing Dynasty in 1911?
"Old China."
What was the kind of government the Chinese nationalists wanted?
The Chinese Republic.
When did the Kuomintang force the last Qing emperor?
February 1912.
What was Sun Yat-sen's description of the republic's ruling philosophy?
"The Three Principles of the People."
What were the three parts of "The Three Principles of the People" created by Sun Yat-sen in China?
The People's government; people's rights; and peopl's livelihood.
What did these principles call for?
(1) Political unification; end of foreign influence.
(2) Change to democratic government; Rights for all Chinese people.
(3) Economic improvements; Industrialization.
What land did the Kuomintang originally control in southern China.
What title gained power during the last year of the Qing Dynasty.
What did these warlords do which proposed problems for the Kuomintang in China?
They refused to surrender their power and land without a fight.
What did the Nationalists wish to establish after defeating the warlords?
the Republic of China as a strong central government.
What did the Kuomintang do to establish their goal of the central government of the Republic of China?
They asked for foreign intervention.
What nations responded to this plead in 1920?
The Soviet Union.
Who replaced Sun yat-sen after his death in 1925?
Chiang Kai-shek.
What was the name of the military campaign started by Chiang in China, against the warlords of the north?
Norhtern Expedition.
Did the Northern expedition succeed? What provinces did they occupy after this?
Yes; Wuhan and Nanjing on the Chang Jiang, as well as Beijing two years later.
What party was left wing in China? Right?
Socialists and Communists; The Conservatives
What did the Socialists and Communists support in China?
More power in the hands of peasants and workers.
What did the Conservatives want in China?
To avoid radical change, especially reforms designed to give more power to the poor.
Who was the leader of the Conservatives?
Chiang Kai-shek.
In 1927, Chiange expelled all Soviet advisers from the country and did what?
He attacked all the party's left-wing members.
Troops loyal to Chiang attacked what/who? They arrested them then executed them on the spot.
Communist stronghold of Shanghai.
With no one left to apose him, Chiang established a Nationalist government where?
Eventually what kind of government was established in China?
A one-party system with Chiang as virtual dictator.
A lot of China's wealth was spent on Militarization, when initially they wanted to what?
What held back China's economic development after the revolution?
Foeign control of natural resources.
What two problems did the Nationalists fail to solve in China?
Land ownership; taxes.
In July 1921, a small group of Chinese intellectuals met in Shanghai to discuss what?
Chinese Communist Party.
What was the Chinese Communist Party inspired by?
The Russian Revolution.
Who was the Chinese Communist party inspired by?
Karl Marx, and Lenin.
What was the execution of many Chinese Communists in 1927 called?
The Purge of 1927.
What did Chiang do after he realized in 1930 he didn't exterminate the Communist Part?
He went on a large scale to Annihilate communism once and for all.
Where did the communists who survived the Purge of 1927 flee to?
Jiangxi province.
In Jiangxi the Chinese Communists established their own government modeling it after what?
The Russian Communist Regime
What was the establishment of the Chinese Communist government in Jiangxi called?
Chinese Soviet Republic.
What occured after the Nationalists sieged the Chinese Soviets in Jiangxi?
The Communists eventually broke through the siege and fled.
After the Chinese Soviets escaped the Nationalists grip in Jiangxi 100,000 communists traveled over 6,000 miles. What was this called?
The Long March.
How many Communists made it to the end of the march?
10,000 communists.
Where did the Long march end?
Where did the remaining communists establish their new headwuarters?
Who did the Chinese Communists choose to lead them?
Mao Zedong.
What social class of citizens in China newly began to suport the Communists after fleeing Jiangxi.
What was the name of the Communist Army existing in China?
The Communist Army or The Red Army.