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56 Cards in this Set

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Marco Polo
a merchant from the city of Venice, went on journey with his father to China in 1270's
Lorenzo de Medici
poet and patron of the arts and literature: ruler of Florence
Machiavelli
a diplomat in Florence, wrote Prince, said that a ruler should rule with power
Florence
small city-state in Italy,wealth from trade of cloth, first wealthy city-state
Venice
small city-state in Italy, built on many swampy islands,wealthiest city-state
secular
people are more interested in this world rather than in religion and getting to heaven
diplomacy
the art of negotiating, or making deals with other countries
Renaissance
means "rebirth" from 1350-1550
doge
the head of state, or duke, in Venice
'The Prince'
written by Maciavelli, book about his ideas on how rulers should govern their people
humanism
based on the values of grecians and romans,humanists believed that the individual and society were important
Dante Alighieri
wrote 'The Divine Comedy', he was a poet that lived in Florence
Gutenburg
developed the printing press that used moveable type
Leonardo da Vinci
Renaissance scientist, dissected corpses,studied fossils, also was an inventor, artist, and engineer
Michelangelo
famous artist he: painted,sculpted, and designed buildings painted the Sistine Chapel in Rome
Shakespere
an English writer, wrote comedies,tragedies, and historical plays
vernacular
an everyday language people speak in a region
Flanders
region that is today in northern Belguim, oil painting developed here
Raphael
one of Italy's best painters
School of Athens
Raphael's best painting, it depicts a number of of Greek philosophers
Albrecht Durer
one of the greatest artists of the northern Renaissance
Wittenburg
a town in Germany where Martin Luther taught
Geneva
a protestant city in Switzerland, Calvin fled to safety here
Martin Luther
a monk that challenged the catholic church, made 95 Theses, started the Reformation
Lutherans
member of the Lutheran church, followed Martin Luther and his teachings
Erasmus
Christian humanism scholar/clergyman, wrote that human beings could use their reason to become better Christians
John Calvin
studied theology, believed in Predestination, ideas based on Martin Luther's
Reformation
the movement to reform the Catholic church; led to Protestantism
indulgence
a pardon from the church for a persons' sins
denomination
organized branch of Christianity
theology
the study of quations about God
Edict of Worms
declared Martin Luther an outlaw, banning his writings, and requiring his arrest
95 Theses
95 arguements that Martin Luther had against the church(indulgences)
Johann Tetzel
a German monk antagonist of Martin Luther
Peace of Augsburg
an agreement which let each German ruler decide whether his kingdom would be Catholic or Protestant
predestination
means that no matter what people do the outcome of their life is already planned
Charles V(5th)
holy roman emporer, went to war with the german rulerswho converted to Lutheranism
Trent
a city near Rome where the church council met
hersey
religious beliefs that contradicts what the church says is true
seminary
a special school for training and educating priests
Ignatius of Loyola
founded the Jesuits, a daring soldier
Henry of Navarre
the leader of the Huguenot forces and head of the Bourbon family
Henry VIII(8th)
married 6 times(divorced 2, beheaded 2) he was cruel, impatient, and stubborn
Mary I(bloody mary)(1st)
Queen of England,arrested Protestants who opposed her, raised Catholic
Elizabeth I(1st)
Protestant queen(mary I 1/2 sister), restored the Anglican church
Thirty Years War
a series of conflicts between German Protestants and Catholics
Tomas de Torquemada
Grand Inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition, executed some 2,000 Spaniards
Spanish Inquisition
a Catholic court similar to the one set up in Europe, the Spanish Inquisition was much more cruel
Maimonides
most famous Jewish scholar, born in Spain, books mon religion and medicine won hime great respect
annul
a divorce, to cancel a marriage
Counter-Reformation
1500's-1600's, the Catholic church set out to defeat Protestantism and convince people to return to the Church
Puritans
educated people who read Calvin's works and became convinced that he was right. they demanded that the Anglican Church give up its Catholic way of doing things
Phillip II(2nd)
married to Mary I,king of Spain and Portugal; he supported the Counter Reformation and sent the Spanish Armada to invade England
Anglican Church
The Church of England and the churches in other nations that are in complete agreement with it as to doctrine and discipline and are in communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury
Pope Leo X(10th)
in 1520 he issued a decree that threatened to excommunicate Martin Luther, unless Luther recanted, Luther refuses and the pope excommuncated Luther
Prince Frederick the Wise of Saxony
he sheltered Martin Luther