Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/231

Click to flip

231 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Humanism
focused on human potential and achievement
secular
means worldly or the here and now
patron (3)
1. church leaders
2. Renaissance merchants
3. wealthy families
perspective
technique creating three dimensions on a flat surface
vernacular
the everyday language of a region or country
Leonardo da Vinci
artist that painted the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper
Raphael
artist whose worlds focused on the Madonna and child
Michelangelo
Painter and sculptor whose sculpture of David stood 18-feet high
Donatello
His statue of David was the first nude sculpture since the classical era
Petrarch
wrote sonnets about an ideal woman named Laura, and is considered to be the first humanist
Boccaccio
greatest work was the Decameron, whish was a series of realistic, off-color stories
Machiavelli
wrote The Prince, which stated that morality was of no importance to a ruler. His only concern was to stay in power.
Florence
capital of the Italian Renaissance
Medici
family was the wealthiest and most powerful during the Italian Renaissance
Baldassare Castiglioe
wrote The Courtier, which outlined what a "Renaissance man" should be
Thomas More
wrote about an ideal place inhabited by a peace-loving people
Albrecht Durer
earliest artiest of the Northern Renaissance who inspired later artists of this region
Hans Holbein
Painted portraits for Hentry VIII which were almost photographic in detail
Jan van Eyck
the first artist to use oil-based paints
Pieter Bruegel
Flemish art reaches its height with this artist's work
Desiderius Erasmus
wrote The Praise of Folly, in which, he poked fun at greedy merchants and pompous priests.
William Shakespheare
greatest playwright in English language; comedy and tragedy
Elizabethan Age
the name for the Renaissance in England
Johann Gutenberg
man who recreated the movable type printing press
Reformation (Causes)
1. emphasis the individual
2. Printing press
3. rulers resented popes
4. Northern merchants resented paying church taxes
5. Germany divided into many competing states
indulgence
a pardon that released a sinner from performing a penalty imposed by a priest for a sin
annul
means "set aside"
Lutheran
The first Protestant religious group
Protestant
refers to Christians who belong to non-Catholic churches
Anglican
another name for the church of England
Peace of Augsburg
agreement that the ruler of each German state would decide the religion of his kingdom
Martin Luther
stated Reformation by starting 95 Theses and started Luthern Church
95 Theses
name of Martin Luther's protest of Catholic church practices
Johann Tetzel
frior who was selling pardons to rebuild St. Peter's Cathedral
Henry VIII
Monarch of England that broke ties with the Catholic Church and created the Church of England
Elizabeth I
monarch of England that defeated the Spanish Armada
predestination
idea that God has known since the beginning of time who will be saved
theocracy
government run by religious rulers and politics
Calvinism
strict Protestant religion
(John Calvin is founder) (no bright colors, gamble)
Presbyterian
Calvinist church in Scotland (John Knox is founder)
Anabapist
religious group name, in Greek, means "baptize again"
Counter/Catholic Reformation
a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself
Jesuits (3 Activites)
1. Convert non-Christians to Catholics
2. Stop Protestant faith from spreading
3. Founded schools
Council of Trent (4 Points)
1. Indulgences were valid
2. Bible and Church were equally powerful
3. Interpretations from the Church was final. Any other city were heretics
4. Index of forbidden books
Ignatius of Loyola
was the founder of the Jesuit order
capitalism
people invest and take money to make a profit off of it
joint-stock company
people pull money together in order to minimize risk of losing money (modern day incorroporation)
mercantalism (2 ways to gain wealth)
1. Gaining as much gold as possible
2. favorable balance of trade
favorable balance of trade
export more than import
divine right
God gives monarch the right to rule
asiento
slave trade to Spanish colonies
Philip II
most powerful monarch of early age of absolutism (from Spain)
Spanish Armada (1588)
great naval fleet that was destroyed by the English
El Greco & Diego Velazquez
two great Spanish artist
Miguel de Cervantes (Don Quixote)
wrote Don Quixote, considered 1st modern western novel
William of Orange
led the Netherlands to independence from Spain
Rembrandt
greatest dutch artist, shading
Jan Vermeer
domestic indoor settings-artist
intendant
collected taxes and administered justice for French Kings
skepticism
idea that nothing can ever be known for certain
Edict of Nantes
Treaty that ended the persecution of French Huguenots
Henry of Navarre/Henry IV
French monarch who signed the Edict of Nantes
Cardinal Richelieu
The leader of France during Louis XII's rule
Cardinal Mazarin
Ruler of France during Louis XIV's reign
Louis XIV (Legacy)
During his rule the French monarchy is at the height of its power
Versailles
Place from which Louis XIV ruled France
War of Spanish Succession (Treaty of Utrecht)
Conflict to determine if Philip of Anjou whould become the King of Spain
Thirty Years' War
The last religious war in Europe that ended with Portestant princes gaining independence from the Holy Roman Emperor
Peace of Westphalia
The peace that ended the Thirty Years War that introduced a new method of peace negotiations
Maria Theresa
Powerful monarch or Austria whose daughter becomes Queen of France
Frederick the Great
He becomes the great reformer king of Prussia who rivaled Maria Theresa
Seven Years' War
Also known as the French and Indian War (established England's complete control over India and the French territories of North America)
Junkers
Prussia's landowning nobility
Westernization (How was Russia different? & How did Russia change?)
1. introduced potatoes (change)
2. started Russia's first newspater and edited ites first issue himself
3. raised women's status by having them attend social gatherings
4. ordered the nobles to give up their traditional clothes for Western fashions
5. advanced education by opening a school of navigation and introducing schools for the arts and sciences.
boyars
Russia's landowning nobles
Time of Troubles
Period of time after Ivan the Terrible's son dies leaving Russia without a heir
Grand Embassy
A long visit the Peter the Great took to Western Europe
Ivan III (3 accomplishments)
1. overthrew mongal rule of Russia
2. Centralize government in Russia
3. Began to take over territory around Moscow
Ivan the Terrible/Ivan IV
His reign can be divided into a "good period" and "bad period." Also the first Russian leader to use the title "czar"
Peter the Great
Monarch who modernized Russia by creating a professional army and placing the Russian Orthodox church under state control
Michael Romanov
He is the first ruler of his dynasty
cabinet
group of government ministers chosen by the head of a country to help make government decisions
habeas corpus
Gives everyone the right to a trial
constitutional monarchy
where laws limit the power of a monarch
English Civil War
War in which Puritan supporters of Parliament battled supporters of England's monarchy
St. Petersburg
The warm water seaport that Peter the Great had built to connect Russia to Europe
Oliver Cromwell
Puritan general that rules England as a dictator
James I
King of Scotland and England that ordered a new translation of the Bible
Charles I
English monarch who was executed for treason
Restoration
When Charles II restored the monarchy of England
Glorious Revolution
The bloodless overthrow of King James II
Petition of Rights (4 Points)
(He refers to Charles I)
1. He would not imprison subjects without due cause
2. He would not levy taxes without Parliament's consent
3. He would not house soldiers in private homes
4. He would not impose martial law in peacetime
1689 Bill of Rights
created a list of restrictions on the English monarchy
Whigs/Tories
first two political parties in England
Renaissance & Age of Exploration (How did they influence the Scientific Revolution?)
1. new technology
2. ships
3. discoveries
geocentric theory
earth is the center of the universe
heliocentric theory
sun is the center of the universe
Scientific Revolution
new way philosphers examined the world around them
scientific method
observation, experament, conclustion, ect.
Nicolaus Copernicus
astronomer whose observations of the skies led him to accept the idea that the Earth revolves around the sun and whose observations of society led him to keep his observations and findings to himself until very late in life
Galileo
Scientist who discovered the law of the pendulum and that Jupiter has many moons
Isaac Newton
mathematician and physicist who combined the theories and discoveries of earlier Enlightenment scientists under a single theory of motion known as the law of universal gravitation
Francis Bacon & Rene Descartes
developed scientific method; Rene-based on mathematics
Edward Jenner
1st vaccine for small pox
Robert Boyle
Is considered to bet the father of modern Chemistry and his theory explains the relationship between volume, temperature, and pressure of gas
4 new scientific instruments
1. thermometer
2. barometer
3. telescope
4. microscope
social contract
People make an agreement with government to protect the rights and if they don't you can get rid of them
Philosophe (5 concepts of belief)
1. Progress
2. liberty
3. nature
4. reason
5. happiness
Thomas Hobbes
said people are naturally selfish so they need a strong government to keep order
John Locke
Philosopher that believed the purpose of government is to protect people's natural rights of life, liberty, and property.
Voltaire
Philosophe whose use of satire to criticize the clergy, the aristocracy, and the government of France got him thrown in prison and exiled
Montesquieu
Philosophe who proposed, in on the spirit of the laws, that the separation of powers keeps any individual or group form gaining total control of a government
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Philisophe who, in The Social Contract, argued that civilization corrupted people's natural goodness
Cesare Baccaria
Philosopher whose criticisms of torture and other common abuses of justice led to reforms in the criminal justice system of Europe and Northern America
Mary Wollstonecraft
Political thinker who, in a vindication of the Rights of Women, argued for equal political rights for women and for the education of women
salon
social gatherings of Early Enlightenment
enlightened despot (3)
1. Catherine the Great
2. Fredrick the Great
3. Joseph II
baroque
style of art that was considered to be grand or ornate
neoclassical
new classical
Mozart
great composer of classical time, wrote operas
Beethoven
great pianist transititioned from neoclassical to the age of romantism
Denis Diderot
Philosophe who edited and published the encyclopedia
Samuel Richardson
English writer who, in works such as Pamela, developed many of the features of the modern novel
federal system
seperation of powers between federal and state government
causes of the French Revolution (5)
1. Bad leadership from Louis XVI
2. low economy
3. success of American Revolution
4. Enlightenment ideas
5. resentment from lower class
old regime
old system of government where 3 states would meet, they they vote
estates-general (3)
1. Catholic church-1%
2. nobles-2%
3. Population: bourgeoisie, peasants, urban workers-97%
National Assembly
creation of this assembly was the first deliberate act of the revolution
Tennis court oath
Pledge by the third estate not to leave until a new constitution was written
Great Fear
wave of senseless violence that spread throughout France after the storming of the Bastille
Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette
King and Queen of France during French Revolution (both executed)
Legislative assembly
2nd assembly of revolution, created consitutional monarchy
emigre
nobles who fled France during the peasant uprisings
sans-culotte
this was the radical group named for the style of breeches its members wore
Jacobin
most radical group of French revolution (controlled Reign of Terror)
guillotine
device to which many people lost their lives to during the French Revolution
Reign of Terror
year long period of chaos in which approximately 40,000 people were killed in France
Jean-Paul Marat
radical revolutionary that was fatally stabbed by another revolutionary
Georges Danton
member of Jacobin (executed)
Maximilien Robespierre (Committee of Public Safety)
Government agency responsible for determining whether or not a person was an enemy of the republic
coup d'etat
a sudden seizure of power
plebiscite
a vote of the people
lycee
government- run public schools
concordat
an agreement between Napoleon and the Pope
Napoleonic Code
napoleon's greatest accomplishment
Battle of Trafalgar
this defeat forced Napoleon to give up his ambitions to invade England
Napoleon Bonaparte (3 Major Mistakes)
1. Invasion of Russia
2. Continental System
3. Peninsular War (worst mistake)-lost alot of men during the winter
guerrillas
band of Spainsh fighters that attacked the French army in Spain
scorched-earth policy
the destruction of grain fields and livestock so as to leaving nothing for an enemy to eat.
Hundred Days
term that refers to Napoleon's last attempt for power
Glorious Revolution
The bloodless overthrow of King James II
Petition of Rights (4 Points)
(He refers to Charles I)
1. He would not imprison subjects without due cause
2. He would not levy taxes without Parliament's consent
3. He would not house soldiers in private homes
4. He would not impose martial law in peacetime
1689 Bill of Rights
created a list of restrictions on the English monarchy
Whigs/Tories
first two political parties in England
Renaissance & Age of Exploration (How did they influence the Scientific Revolution?)
1. new technology
2. ships
3. discoveries
geocentric theory
earth is the center of the universe
heliocentric theory
sun is the center of the universe
Scientific Revolution
new way philosphers examined the world around them
scientific method
observation, experament, conclustion, ect.
Nicolaus Copernicus
astronomer whose observations of the skies led him to accept the idea that the Earth revolves around the sun and whose observations of society led him to keep his observations and findings to himself until very late in life
Galileo
Scientist who discovered the law of the pendulum and that Jupiter has many moons
Isaac Newton
mathematician and physicist who combined the theories and discoveries of earlier Enlightenment scientists under a single theory of motion known as the law of universal gravitation
Francis Bacon & Rene Descartes
developed scientific method; Rene-based on mathematics
Edward Jenner
1st vaccine for small pox
Robert Boyle
Is considered to bet the father of modern Chemistry and his theory explains the relationship between volume, temperature, and pressure of gas
guillotine
device to which many people lost their lives to during the French Revolution
Reign of Terror
year long period of chaos in which approximately 40,000 people were killed in France
Jean-Paul Marat
radical revolutionary that was fatally stabbed by another revolutionary
Georges Danton
member of Jacobin (executed)
Maximilien Robespierre (Committee of Public Safety)
Government agency responsible for determining whether or not a person was an enemy of the republic
coup d'etat
a sudden seizure of power
plebiscite
a vote of the people
lycee
government- run public schools
concordat
an agreement between Napoleon and the Pope
Napoleonic Code
napoleon's greatest accomplishment
Battle of Trafalgar
this defeat forced Napoleon to give up his ambitions to invade England
Napoleon Bonaparte (3 Major Mistakes)
1. Invasion of Russia
2. Continental System
3. Peninsular War (worst mistake)-lost alot of men during the winter
guerrillas
band of Spainsh fighters that attacked the French army in Spain
scorched-earth policy
the destruction of grain fields and livestock so as to leaving nothing for an enemy to eat.
Hundred Days
term that refers to Napoleon's last attempt for power
Battle of Waterloo
site of Napoleon's final defeat
Elba/St. Helena
first island that Napoleon was exiled to. 2nd island Napoleon died
Congress of Vienna (effects)
1. 40 years of peace
2. rise or growth of nationalism
3. growth of alliance systems
Klemens von Metternich (3 goals)
1. Legitimacy
2. restore balance of power
3. weaken France
balance of power
means that no country would be a threat to others
legitimacy
agreement that as many as possible of the rulers whom Napoleon had driven from power should be restored to their thrones
Holy Alliance (3)
1. Russia
2. Prussia
3. Austria
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances that assured that the nations of Europe would come to one another's aid if any revolutions broke out.
Agriculutural Revolution (Influence on Industrialization)
1. Enclosures
2. new technology
3. crop rotation
enclosure
large fields that were used to experiment in order to discover more productive farming methods to boost crop yields
industrialization (natural reasources) (3)
1. iron ore
2. water
3. coal
Drawbacks-early industrialization (3)
1. Disease
2. unsanitary
2. poor living conditions
factors of production (3)
1. land
2. labor
3. capital
factory
where items were produced during Industrial revolution (built near streams/rivers)
entrepreneur
a person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risk of a business
textile industry
first industry to be Industrialized
urbanization
city building and the movement of people to cities
middle class
product of Industrial revolution (wealth but no power)
stock
are certain rights of ownership in a company
corporation
a business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts
laissez faire
means to "let do" or "let people do as they please"
utilitarianism
belief that the government policies should bring about the greatest good for the greatest number of people
socialism
in this type of economic system, the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
Communism/Marxism
founded by Carl Marx - everyone is equal in society
union
a voluntary association of workers who work for reforms in their work place
strike
means "refusal to work"
collective bargaining
when employees negotiate with employers for better pay and working conditions
Adam Smith (3 natural laws of economics)
1. law of self-interest
2. law of competition
3. law of supply and demand
David Ricardo
believed there would always be a permanent underclass of poor workers because large populations would keep wages down
Thomas Malthus
argued that without wars and epidemics the population would be so high that people would be destined to be poor and miserable
John Steward Mill
built utilitarianism
Robert Owen
factory owner who improved working and living conditions, offered free schooling, and prohibited children under the age of ten from working
Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels (Communist Manifesto)
document they wrote, which outlined their ideas about government and society
William Wilberforce
member of the English Parliament that fought for the end of slavery and the slave trade
Jane Addams
set up Hull Houses to serve the needs of immigrants and train social workers
Horace Mann
favored a free public education for all children
industrialization (long-term improvements for society)
1. living conditions for the average worker
2. educational opportunities
3. affordability of consumer goods
imperialism
control over weaker nations
Social Darwinism
survial of the fittest (in nations-racists)
Berlin Conference
Europeon countries divided Africa
Reasons for African Colonization (4)
1. Social Darwinism
2. Economic competition
3. National pride
4. desire to Christianize non-Europeon countries
Nationalism
a strong devotion or patriotism toward one's country
Militarism
Policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war
Schlieffen Plan
Germany's plan for a quick end to fighting in France, during WWI
Fourteen Points
President Wilson's plan for peace in WWI
League of Nations
organization created, at the end of WWI, to try and maintain world peace
Allies (6)
1. Japan
2. Italy
3. France
4. Great Britain
5. Russia
6. United States
Central Powers (4)
1. Germany
2. Austria-Hungary
3. Bulgaria
4. Ottoman Empire
Treaty of Versailles (3 Ways Germany was Punished)
1. Sole blame: paid $33 billion
2. lost all colonies
3. could not make/have imported weapons
New Weapons of WWI (5)
1. Posion gas
2. airplane
3. machine guns
4. submarine
5. tanks
Causes of WWI (5)
1. Nationalism
2. Imperialism
3. Militarism
4. Alliances
5. murder of FranzFerdinand