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34 Cards in this Set

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A group of nomadic, pastoral people from steppes north of Caucasus Mtns. who used horses and chariots.
What are Indo-Europeans?
herded cattle, sheep & goats and had forerunner of English language p.c74
Dry grasslands that stretched north of Caucasus Mtns. betw. Black & Caspian Seas.
What are the Steppes?
a temperate grassland region in Northern Hemisphere p.66
Movements of a people from one region to another by waves over a period of time.
What is Migration?
Some tribes included Germans, Celts, Greeks, Aryans, and Indo-Europeans.
Indo-European peoples (2000 B.C. to 1190 B.C.) who occupied Asia Minor (Anatolia). They adopted Akkadian, Babylonian language, used chariots & iron technology in war weapons
What are Hittites?
blended their traditions with more advanced Mesopotamians in literature, art, politics, and law
Indo-European people living between Caspian & Aral Seas who crossed over into the Indus River Valley of India.
What are the Aryans?
No writing system, developed Caste System based on occupration with bramins (priests), warriors, traders/landowners, & peasants
Sacred literature of Aryans include prayers, magical spells, & instructions for performing rituals.
What are Vedas?
Ex. Rig Veda = 1,028 hymns to Gods
An Aryan Priest.
What are Brahmins?
One of 4 groups in caste system based on occupation
The 4 major groups by occupation (Varnas) are named caste by Portuguese explorers in 15th C. A.D.
What are Castes?
Lowest are Untouchables (ie. butchers, garbage collectors,
An Indian epic reflecting the struggles that took place in India as the Aryan Kings worked to control Indian lands.
What is Mahabharata?
Krishna, a god in human form, instructs a young warrior on the proper way to live, fight, and die.
A collection of religious beliefs that developed slowly over a long period of time; cannot be traced back to one founder.
What is Hinduism?
Between 750 & 550 B.C. Hindu teachers tried to interpret and explain the Vedic hymns creating the Upanishads.
An individual soul or spirit is born again and again until "moksha" is achieved.
What is Reincarnation?
means "rebirth"
"good or bad deeds" which follow from one reincarnation to another influencing one's life circumstances such as caste type, state of health, wealth, or poverty, et. al.
What is Karma?
when a person understands the relationship betw. atman and Brahman, he achieves Moksha and release from life in this world.
A religion founded in India (599 B.C. - 527 B.C.) in the 6th century B.C. whose members believe that everything in the universe has a soul and therefore should not be harmed.
What is Jainism?
Founded by Mahavira (599B.C.-527 B.C.) who believed even insects should not be harmed. Most members work in trade & commerce. Approx. 5 Million in India.
Founder of Buddism, born of a noble family from Kapilavastu in foothills of Nepal. Spent most of his life searching for religious truth and an end to life's suffering.
Who is Siddhartha Guatama?
He sought enlightenment/wisdom from which Budda came meaning "enlightened one"
"Wisdom" ; the quest for an understanding of the cause of suffering.
What is Enlightenment?
Achieved through the "Middle Way" or Eightfold Path.
4 Noble Truths: Life is filled w/ suffering&sorrow, suffering comes from people's "selfish desires", to end suffering end all desires, & end all desires by following the 8-fold path/Middle Way between desires & self-denial.
What are Budda's 4 Noble Truths?
8-fold path = Right Views, Right Resolve, " Speech, " Conduct, " Livelihood, " Effort, " Mindfulness, & " Concentration.
Budda's word for "release from selfishness & pain" by following the "eight-fold path"
What is Nirvana?
Budda rejected the many gods of Hinduism and the Caste System but taught reincarnation & enlightenment
A powerful seafaring people (2000-1400 B.C.) on Crete in South Aegean Sea who traded fine painted pottery, swords, vessels of precious metals around Mediterranean Sea.
What are Minoans?
Spread their art & culture over the Mediterranean.
The King of Minoa who legend says owned a half-human and half-bull monster-Minotaur whom he kept in the Labyrynth, a complicated maze he could not escape
Who was King Minos?
This civilization's King promoted women in higher rank, sacrifice of bulls & humans, and sports events: bull leaping, boxing & wrestling.
Powerful traders along the Mediteranean Sea in present day Lebanon; founded wealthy city-states around the Med.
Who were the Phoenicians?
City-states: Byblos, Tyre, & Sidon; gave us the alphabet
Greek Historian who recorded the Phoenicians circumnavigation of Africa through Red Sea & Straight of Gibraltar.
Who was Herodotus?
A monotheistic religion of the Jews whose father was Abraham.
What is Judaism?
Based on the Ten Commandments.
A region at the eastern end of Mediteranean Sea named for the Philistines; cultural crossroads of ancient world
What is Palestine?
Home of the Phoenicians
The home of the Hebrews (Jews) between the Jordan River & Mediteranean Sea as promised by God.
What is Canaan?
also ancient Palestine.
The first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)
What is the Torah?
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy.
"Father of Hebrew People" who moved them to Canaan from Ur in Mesopotamia (1800 B.C.) & later to Egypt (1650 B.C.)
Who was Abraham?
he promised to obey Yahweh and began monotheism
Belief in a single God.
What is Monotheism?
from mono meaning "one" & theism meaning "God Worship"
A mutual promise between God & the founder of the Hebrew people, Abraham by promising to obey God.
What is a Covenant?
The man who led the Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt as God commanded of the Pharoah:
"Let my people go!"
Who was Moses?
Foretold the 7 plagues that struck the Egyptian people
Moses spoke to God on top of Mt. Sanai & these laws were written on stone tablets by God
What are the Ten Commandments?
Became the basis of Civil & religious laws of Judaism as a "new covenant" betw. God & the Hebrew people
Hebrews united under three able kings(1020-92B.C.) ; Saul, David, & Solomon in this new kingdom.
What is Israel?
Later split into two kingdoms: Israel & Judah. Both fell to Assyria which fell to King Nebuchanezzar
A Jewish revolt divided the Kingdom in two (922B.C.) Israel in the North & ___?__ in the South.
What is Judah?
tribute was paid to Assyria to prevent attack. Northern Kingdom fell by 722 B.C. & Judah fell in 586 B.C.
Peace money paid by a weaker power (Israel & Judah) to a stronger one (Assyriah)
What is Tribute?
Seige of Samaria, Israel by Assyria in 725 B.C.
Babylonian King who conquered Judah & Jerusalem in 586 B.C., destroyed Solomon's temple & exiled Jews in Babylon
Who was King Nebuchanezzar of Babylon?
Palestine and Jews were occupied by Persians, Greeks & Romans.