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68 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Prehistory
The time before written records
History
the study of written records
Artifacts
mad-made history such as tools, weapons, etc
Culture
the way of life for a people including religion, foods, clothing, written language, etc
Paleolithic Age
hunter/gatherers, nomads, Old Stone Age
Neolithic Age
agricultural revolution (they grew crops and could stay in one place), domestication
Bronze Age
people made tools by smelting copper and tin to make bronze
Iron Age
tools from iron, it was stronger and more durible than bronze
Surplus of Food
when civilizations have enough food so they dont have to all be farmers
Government
it was first formed to regulate food/water use
Division of Labor
the population does not have to be all farmers, they can do other things such as pottery and science etc
Specialization
someone becomes specialized in things other than farming
Culture Diffusion
when cultures spread from there origins to other parts of the world
Calendars
first used to predict seasons and floods. first made from the moon then the sun
Written Language
used for passing on of how to do things
Nile River
largest river in the world, flows south to north, floods once a year
Old Kingdom
King Menes, Pharaohs, Heiroglyphics, Papyrus, Scribes, and PYRAMIDS
Middle Kingdom
Golden Age-the best years of ancient Egypt, Hyksos-brought the chariot
New Kingdom
Ramses Two-last powerful pharaoh, Persians invaded and ended independant egyptian civilization
Egyptian Calender
based on moon but it eventually got off schedule so they used the "big star" and added 10 days on the end of the year in which they partied
Egyptian Religion
Polytheistic
Amon-Re
head god of Egypt, seen as creator, Symbol=Sun
Orsis
God of Dead (associated with the Nile) periodically died and was reborn, judged those who died
Afterlife of Egyptian Religion
Book of Dead (Bible of Egyptian religion) Judgement=weighed the heart w/ holy feather-measured peoples good deeds. If your heart failed test, it got eaten my monster. Mummification and pyramids are tombs
Society and Economy of Ancient Egypt
Society divided in 1/2-Nobility or Peasant, born into social class and very hard to move up
men and women were generally equal
Fertile Crescent
surrounded by Tigris and Euphrates rivers, Giant Crossroads=easy to invade
City-States
each had own set of rules seperate from the others EX Kish and Ur
Cuneiform
pictographic language, over 600 different characters
Ziggurats
Temples, each city-state had at least one
Accomplishments of Ancient Sumer
first use of wheel, first number system based on 60, circle=360 degrees, 1 hour=60 minutes & 1 minute=60seconds.
Ancient Sumerian Religion
polytheistic, each city-state had its own god, gods were unpredictable and harsh, associated with the rivers, they had afterlife but no judgement
Akkadians
conquered Sumerians, Sargon was their greatest leader
Babylonians
Hammurabi and Hammurabi's code EX: Eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth
Hittites
first group in Mesopotamia to smelt iron
Assyrians
blood thirsty terrorizers, they brought chariots and burned down Babylon and created Ninevah, they also built a library
Chaldeans
Nebuchadnezzer(built hanging gardens), Babylonian captivity=Hebrews from Isreal to Babylon to be enslaved
Persians
Cyrus the Great (greatest leader started and kept the empire going) and Gov allowed them to keep local power but they had to swear loyalty to the King of Kings
Zoroastrianism
Zoroaster was prophet. Taught there was only 1 god, dualistic (good vs evil) Ahufu-Mazda=God, Mythris=Jesus, Ahriman=Satan, Maji=priests
Phonecians
worlds best merchants and traders, had rare purple dye=indigo became color of royalty. Carthedge=Most important colony
Lydians
made coin money
Hebrews
enslaved 2 times, Abraham=founder, Yhwh=God,
Diaspora
Romans split up Jews and make them leave and rename it Palestine
Ancient Indian Geography
Hymalayas, Khyber Pass (only way through Hymalayas on land)
Indian Rivers
Ganges and Indes
Indian Climate
hot and wet, monsoons (Nov-March blow from N and no rain. Jun-Oct blow from S and rain everyday)
Harappan Civilizations
First in India, big cities, grain storage, some kind of gov, and written language
Indo Aryans
came across Khyber Pass, Sanskrit=written language
Hinduism
based on Vedas (written in Sanskrit), Brahmins=priests
Magadha Empire
united India, fought with Persians and lost but then Persians fell
Mauryan Empire
develops out of Magadha Empire, leader Asoko did not like Hinduism so he brought Buddhism
Gupta Rulers
brought wealth and prosperity to Indians, brought back Hinduism to the people
Vedas and Upanishads
holy texts of Hinduism
Caste System
class systen that dictates what the people will do in life. could not move up class in one lifetime
Untouchables
lowest in caste system, had to do all the jobs no one else wanted (hanling dead, garbage etc)
Reincarnation
the belief that after you die you come back as someone else entirely
Dharma
the obligation to perform your moral duty, if you do well, you move up a caste in your next life
Karma
good and bad forces people create by their actions "what goes around, comes around"
Nirvana
the highest level you can achieve, unity with God, only Brahmins could achieve this
Buddhism
based on "all people suffer and suffering is caused by desire" Siddartha Guatama=Buddah
4 Noble Truths
1. All himan life involves suffer and sorrow 2. Desire causes suffering and sorrow 3. Renouncing desires frees suffering 4. Eightfold path leads to renouncing desires
Ancient Chinese rivers
Yellow, Yangtze, Xi
Shang Dynasty
created bureaucracy
Zhou Dynasty
over threw Shang because they were corrupt and they no longer had the Mandate of Heaven
Qin Dynasty
reunified China began Great Wall, forcing people to work on wall weakened them
Han Dynasty
Civil Service System=way to choose gov officials
Yin and Yang
Yin=female, dark, passive, night, winter. Yang=male, bright, active, day, summer. they have to coexist and have balance to survive
Confucianism
taught respect for family, elders, and authority. perform duties without question
Daoism
founded by Lao-Tzu
"Go with the Flow"
Dao-De-Jing=Holy book of Daoism