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126 Cards in this Set

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tombs for eternity, preserved bodies of dead rulers & provided them everything they would need for afterlife
pyramid
form of Egyptian picture writing, used to keep important records
heiroglyphics
a flat, black stone that has the same message written 3 different forms of script, hyroglyphics, demotic & greek
rosetta stone
first civilization
Mesopotamia
King of Babylon, brought Mesopotamia under his control. eye 4 eye...
Hammurabi
gained fame as sailors and traders. the occupied a string of cities along the eastern Mediterranean coast
Alphabet
Phoenicians
considered a major world religion influenced Christianity & Islalm.
1 God - moral law system
Judaism
farmers/lead to the rise of cities. systematic planting of crops
agriculture
mountains & valleys, rugged coast, hundreds or rocky islands
geograph of Greece
population growth at 750 BC spread around
Greek colonies
Dorians who conquered Laconia. strong military
Sparta
culture, philosophy, olympics, drama
Athens
city states alliance against Teresa
Delian League
wrote the Illiad and the Odyssey.
Homer
Wise skillful leadership. Because of him the economy thrived and the government became democratic.
Pericles
special games held in Athens for competition to honor the gods.
olympics
most important Greek contribution to literature, tragedy, comedy, based on Greek stories.
Drama
predicted the future
Oracle
Athens vs. Sparta
Sparta wins
Peloponnesian war
outspoken critic of the sophist Athenean stonesman and philospher
Socrates
Socrates' student and he wrote the book the Republican
Plato
Plato's most infamous student. Developed his own ideas about government. Influenced western thought
Aristotle
Tutored by Aristotle, empire Greece, Egypt, Persia, India
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great rules this
Hellenistic culture
upper class in Rome
Patricians
the farmers merchants, artisans, and traders who made up the bulk of the population. Lower class
Plebeians
Laws in public
Laws of the 12 tables
war between Rome and Carthage (Rome wins) (3 wars)
Punic Wars
ruling foreign people
Imperialism
first Roman Emperor
Julius Caesar
Roman Peace - started by Augustus
Pax Romana
Paul & Peter spread it around Rome
Christianity
Killing of Christians
martyrdom
walked near Asia & Africa spreading good news
Paul
Emperor in Rome
Nero
Converted to Christianity, emperor
Constantine
begins Pax Romana
Augustus
Horseback riders, attacked Rome
Huns
Another group that attacked Rome (Ended Rome)
Germanic Tribes
476 AD Rome fell to barbaric invaders. Ends Roman Empire
Christianity words: vita, census, etc.
Fall of Rome
Loosely organized system of government where local Lords governed but owned military service
feudalism
during the middle ages in Europe, a lord's estate which included 1 or more villages and the surrounding land
manor
the rank under lesser lord just above peasants. It was a rank that men would train from boyhood adopted in the middle ages
Knight
code of conduct applied to novels (Knights)
chivalry
temple where monks live
monastery
association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect the known economic interests.
guild
people who live in towns. middle class, sold things
townspeople
Holy wars
Crusades
the Muslems that took over Jeruselem and started the crusade
Seljuk Turks
a disease that was raging through Haly/ its name is the bubonic plague, spread by rats
black death
the form of government that makes laws for England
Parliament
modern day Israel
Holy Land
the everyday language of people
vernacular
paid for Renaissance; is a patron
Lorenzo de Medici
produced a lot of poets, artists, architects, scholars & scientists; successful banking business in Italy
Florence
rebirth of culture and knowledge
renaissance
supported arts financially
Patron
father of arts, music, art, lit
Leonardo da Vinci
served as dictator
Niccolo Machiavelli
wrote "Don Quixote" - love and adveal
Migues de Cervantes
painted "a peasant wedding"
Pieter Brughel
sun centered universe
Nicolaus Copernicus
printing press
Johann Gutenberg
science of anatomy
Andreas Vesalius
wrote utopia
Sir Thomas More
a perfect society
Utopia
taught several belief, rejected that the church had special powers
Martin Luther
Led by Martin Luther
protestant formation
pointed at indulgence
95 theses
taught predestination
John Calvin
predestination
God has a plan
wanted a divorce - separated England (becomes protestant)
Henry VIII
wanted marriage not legal
anulment
faith & works - reaffirms traditional Catholic views; vows
council of Trent
punished heretics (taught what the church didn't say
inquisition
Kings chose religion
Peace of Augsburg
contrary beliefs to the church
Heresy
started Jesuits schools & missions
Ignatius Loyola
why exploration began
spice trade
mapmaker
cartographer
a device used to measure the angles of stars & sun above the horizon (lat at sea)
astrolabe
combined the square sails of European ships w/ Arab lateen or triangular sails, made it easier to sail
Caravel
first nation to explore
Portugal
aka Prince Henry hoped to expand Christianity and first source of African gold
Henry the Navigator
Italian navigator wanted to reach the Indes by sailing west - looked for passage to India
Christopher Columbus
Islands discovered by conquistadors, currently known as the Dominican Republic & Haiti
Hispaniola
Line for Portugal & Spain by Pope
Line of Demarcation
to sail around the world
circumnavigation
does not exist
Northwest passage
conquered the Aztecs
Hernan Cortes
Spanish for "Conquer"
Conquistador
conquedred Incas
Francisco Pizarro
modern day Peru
Inca Empire
forced Indian labor
Encomienda
encouraged learning in new world
mission
Louisian to Quebec
New France
first permanent English settlement
Jamestown
French, Indian war, fought for land, (England wins)
Seven Years War
Sellmore than bought, make profit
Mercantilism
One person
capitalism
used ships to transport goods
Netherlands
move up in social classes
social mobility
King has complete authority
absolutism
kings thought they were gods on earth
divine right
based in Austria, owned parts of Italy, Germany, Netherlands & Spain
Hapsburg Empire
fleet of ships
Armada
tolerance for protestant
Edict of Nantes
builds Versailles, spent lots of $
Louis XIV of France
hunting lodge
Versailles
French Calvinest (protested)
Huguenot
Patron of arts. tolerant words faiths
Elizabeth I of England
behaved like an absolute monarch, signed petition of right & raised taxes
Charlels I of England
Charles vs. Parliament won
English Civil War
lead round heads
Oliver Cromwell
overthrow of James II w/o bloodshed 1688
The Glorious Revolution
limited monarchy
Constitutional Monarchy
English legislature
Parliament
takes part of Poland
Frederick II of Prussia
fought for control of German speaking people
Maria Theresa
"Ivan the Terrible" 1st czar of Russia. started oprichdiro
Ivan IV of Russia
leader
Czar
Ivans secret police
Oprichnina
westernizes Russia. expands to Black Sea
Peter I of Russia
other monarch takes a piece of Poland
Catherine II of Russia
Prussia, Austria, Russia
Partition of Poland
belief all countries in Europe are equal & similar
balance of power