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59 Cards in this Set

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Ahimsa
nonviolence
Moksha
Hindu release from the cycle of rebirth
Vedas
Hindu religious writings introduced by Aryans
A place of worship for Muslims
mosque
The 1st pillar of Islam
declare there is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet
2nd pillar of Islam
Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca and the Kaaba stone
3rd pillar of Islam
Give charity to the poor- "hajj"
4th pillar of Islam
Fast during Ramadan
5th pillar of Islam
Try to go on a pilgramage to Mecca at least once in your life
Muslims believe they descended from _____
Ishmael
Sharia
Islamic laws derived from the Koran.
Cover religion, family, gov't, all aspects of life.
Muslims that believed the that caliph to Muhammad should have been a relative of Muhammad.
Shiites
Muslims that believe the caliph should be chosen from among the Muslim leaders (not a relative).
Sunni
Muslims whose spiritual style invovles mysticism and poetic imagery. They sought to communicate with God through meditation, fasting, and rituals. Spread Islam through missionary work.
Sufis
Conquered Islamic world, spread Islam to central Asia- beyond just Arabs.
Tamerlane
How did the Abassid dynasty come to power?
By inviting all Umayyads to a banquet and then killing them all. Hands-on.
Successor
Caliph
First successor to Muhammad?
Abu Bakr
Muslims tried to invade northern France, but they were defeated at which battle?
The Battle of Tours-- there Muslim advance in Europe halted.
The 4th caliph, assassinated in 661
Ali
Who was Ali assassinated by?
Abassids
90% of Muslims today are what?
Sunni
Dynasty after Ali's death
Umayyad
Umayyads were hated by who, and why?
a. Shiites
b. Because they killed Ali's son and defeated Ali.
Which dynasty overtook the Umayyads?
Abbassid
Which dynasty ended Arab dominance and made Islam a universal religion?
Abbassid
Minarets
Slender towers of mosques
Muezzin
mosque official who climbed the minaret each day and prayed
The Abbassid capital?
Baghdad
Muslim Golden Age...under which empire?
Abbassid, duh
Why was it a golden age?
-Social mobility
-Slaves were brought from other countries, but Muslims were not enslaved and there were ways to be freed from slavery
Arabesque?
Intricate designs composed of curved lines that decorated mosques, since no pictures of god or Muhammad were permitted
The Delhi Sultanate.
Why was it named a "sultanate"?
Land was ruled by a sutan @ Delhi
What kind of people were very common converts to Islam?
Hindus, because Islam rejected the caste system
In 1398, Tamerlane invaded Delhi. What happened?
-Smashed up Delhi
-Enslaved artisans to build a new capital at Samarkand
-Sultans lost control
-India fragmented into rivaling Hindu & Muslim states
Who had to pay taxes and why?
Non-Muslims...because the tolerance level wasn't where it could have been
Urdu?
New language...mixture of Persian, Arabic, and Hindi
Who blended the Islamic and Hindu faiths to make what religion?
Nanak; Sikhism
Babur
-Head of Turkis and Mongol invaders
-Military genius and poet
-Set up Mughal dynasty
-1526 to 1857
Akbar
-grandson of Babur
-Held a reign from 1556-1605
-Was Muslim, but one the favor and respect of the Hindus as well
-Extremely tolerant and caring
-Ended the tax on non-Muslims
-Wanted religious harmony, through toleration
-Paid government officials to hold jobs instead of heirs
Jahangir
-Son of Akbar
-Much weaker
-Had his wife rule basically FOR him
Shah Jahan
-Akbar's grandson
-Built Taj Mahal
Why was the Taj Mahal built?
As a tomb for Shah Jahan's wife's untimely death.
Aurangzeb
-Shah Jahan's son
-Usurped the throne before his father could build a twin to the Taj Mahal
-Locked his father in prison until he died
-Rejected Akbar's tolerance policy
-Re-prosecuted Hindus
-Economic hardships, heavy taxes, and intolerance led to discontent
^This sparked a revolt against Mughal rule.
Suleiman...emperor of which empire?
Ottoman
The Ottoman's golden age was under who?
Suleiman
What did Suleiman do that was good for his empire?
-He strengthened the central government
-Created a bureaucracy
-Social organization into 4 classes
Janizaries?
Elite force of Ottoman army
When and why did the Ottoman empire decline?
-about 1700
-Behind in technology
Where was the Safavid Empire located?
Persia (present day Iran)
What kind of Muslim where the Safavids?
Shiite
What was the name of the greatest king of the Safavid Empire?
Abbas the Great
What was the Safavid policy on toleration?
They tolerated non-Muslims with respect
Capital of the Safavid Empire?
Isfahan
Where was the international center of silk trading?
Isfahan
When did the Safavid glory fade?
After Abba's death
What is the sacred text of Islam?
The Koran/Quran
What language is the Quran/Koran in?
Arabic
To Muslims, what are people of other monotheistic religions known as?
"People of the Book"