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191 Cards in this Set

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An intricate design composed of curved lines that suggest floral shapes, appeared in rugs, textiles, and glasswares
arabesque
one of the five pillars of islam, pilgrimage to Mecca that all muslims are expected to make at least once in their lives.
hajj
slender tower of a mosque, from which muslims are called to pray
minaret
muslim ruler
sultan
polish king, broke the ottoman siege of vienna
jan sobieski
justinian's wife, advisor, and co-ruler
theodora
known for his reform of the law. built the Hagia Sophia, ruled as an autocrat,sole ruler
justinian
excercised authority over other bishops in their area
patriarch
ottoman ruler, captured Constantinople
Muhammad 2
landowning noble in Russia under the czars
a boyar
under this ruler kiev enjoyed a golden age; this ruler issued a written law code
Yaroslav
brought much of northern Russia under his rule. took the title of "czar"
Ivan the Great
Mongol chief. imposed strict military discipline and demanded absolute loyalty
Genghiz Khan
Queen of Poland. poland's greatest age
Jadwiga
western world's 1st important female historian. wrote during the Byzantine Empire. "Alexlad"
Anna Comnena
earned her living as writer, "The city of ladies"
Christine de Pizan
summoned parliament to approve money for his wars in france
Edward 1
agreed to give Byzantine emperor, Alexius 1, christian knights. called for a crusade
Urban 2
"The Canterbury Tales", follows a band of english pilgrims traveling to thomas beckett's tomb
Geoffrey Chaucer
pope, extended the cluniac reforms to the entire church. outlawed marriage for priests and prohibited simony
gregory 7
pope, claimed supremacy over all other rulers. excommunicated King John and kingdom was under interdict
innocent 3
ended the poicy of religious toleration. brought a brutal crusade against jews and muslims . Queen of spain.
Isabella
"Summa Theologica", explained christian teachings in light of reason. "faith and reason existed in harmony"
Thomas Aquinas
king of england census -doomesday book
William the Conqueror
saint; led the french to victories
Joan of Arc
used reason to support christian beliefs
scholasticism
were in guilds
medievel merchants
permanent split
schism
holy war
crusade
everday language of ordinary people
vernacular
worked with a merchant to learn a trade
apprentice
viking, setup a short lived colony on north america
leif erickson
feaudalsitic society; mounted warrior
knight
wandering poet in europe
troubador
revived latin learning in his empire
charlemagne
study of past people and cultures
archaeology
object made by human beings
artifact
thick sheet of ice that covered parts of the earth during the ice age
glacier
earliest period of human history
Old stone Age
study of people, their environment, and the resources available to them
geography
political unit made up of a city and the surrounding lands
city-state
person who moves from place-to-place in search of food
nomad
spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
cultural diffusion
woman who excercised rights of a pharoah
Queen Hatshepsut
King of Babylon, published set of laws; "Code of ____"
Hammurabi
monotheistic, prophet= Abraham; judaism
Hebrew
leader of egypt, belived to be a god
pharoah
sailors, purple dye, alphabet
phoenician
seasonal wind. in India= winter- hot,dry weather summer- rain
monsoon
group of families with a common ancestor
clan
fine windblown yellow soil
loess
picture that symbolizes an idea or action
ideograph
elected warrior chief of an Aryan tribe in ancient india; local Hindu ruler in india
rajah
Maurya emperor; brought peace&prosperity&unity
Asoka
leader of maurya empire; first great indian empire
chandragupta maurya
taught harmony resulted when people accepted their place in society
confucius
founded religion of buddhism
Siddharta Gautama
believed "nature of man is evil"- legalism
hanfeizi
defeated Antony for the title of princeps, or the first citizen. ordered a censes. stable government
Augustus
spread christianity; apostle
Paul
wrote the Aeneid- showed Rome's heroic past rivaled that of the Greek's
Virgil
people believe he's the son of god
Jesus
germanic leader, ousted the emperor in rome. event known as the "fall" of Rome
Odoacer
famous in the muslim world as a scholar and astronomer, The Rubaiyat, collection of 4-line poems
omar khayyam
founded the abbassid dynasty
abu al-abbas
greatest muslim mathematician , his work pioneered the study of algebra
al-khwarizmi
founder of the Sikh religion; sikhism
nanak
religious community
millet
used powerful army to forge the largest state that existed in West Africa
Sonni Ali
founded the empire of Mali
Sundiata
bishop of Hippo in North America. combined greco-roman learning with christian doctrine
augustine
king of ethiopia, under his rule christian monks built a number of remarkable chruches
Lalibela
nubian king; conquered Egypt
Piankhi
process by which fertile or semidesert land becomes desert
desertification
title for the king of mali
mansa
a lord who was granted land in return for service to a greater lord
vassal
founder of the incan empire
pachacuti
lived in the four corners of Arizona, built pueblos
Anasazi
the sun god of the incas
Inti
lived in the far north. igloos, hunting, and fishing
inuits
earliest american civilization, built cermonial centers
Olmecs
chief Aztec god; sun god
Huitzilopotchli
mississippian; built earthen mounds
Cahokia
all incan roads ran through here; temple of the sun located here
Cuzco
city; well planned. influenced Aztecs
Teotichucan
mayan city, large palaces
Tikal
first Aztec city, island with chinampas (artificial islands)
tenochititlan
dome shaped homes made from snow and ice
igloo
a large underground chamber used for religious ceremonies
kiva
a collection of knotted ,colored strings
quipu
payment that conquered peoples were forced to make to thier conquerors
tribute
ceremonial gift-giving by wealthy Native Americans of the North west coast
potlatch
bridgelike stone structure that carried water from hills to the cities
aqueduct
religious belief that is contrary to to the official teachings of a church
heresy
system of government in which officials are chosen by the people
republic
high ranking church official with authority over a local area
bishop
basic unit of the anicent roman empire
legion
person who suffers or dies for his or her beliefs
martyr
soldier serving in a foreign army for pay
mercenary
member of the landholding upper class in ancient rome
patrician
member of the lowerclass in ancient Rome
plebian
savior sent by god
messiah
from carthage; led army on elephants through the Alps into Italy; Punic Wars
Hannibal
wrote the Odyssey and the Illiad
Homer
athenian philosopher, socratic method- asking questions
socrates
archon of athens, outlawed debt slavery and freed those who had been in debt slavery
Solon
golden age for athens; direct democracy
Pericles
maurya emperor who converted to Buddism
Asoka
hindu god, the creator
Brahma
founded buddism
Siddartha Gautama
hindu god; the destroyer
Shiva
repect for parents
filial piety
complete control over a business or product
monopoly
belief in the rebirth of the soul in another bodily form
reincarnation
large domelike Buddist shrine
stupa
family headed by the father, husband, or oldest male
patriarchal
persian king, sent troops to Marathon=defeated
Darius
king of babylon,empire stretched from persian gulf to Mediterranean sea
Nebuchadnezzar
pushed egyptian rule northward. most powerful pharoah of the new kingdom
Ramses 2
triangular area of marshland formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of some rivers
delta
believing in one god
monotheistic
large landmasses that juts out from a continent
subcontinent
pyramid temple dedicated to the chief god or goddesses
ziggurat
practice of preserving bodies of an ancient sumerian city-state
mummification
how do archaeologists find out about early peoples?
study artifacts, such as clothing, coins, artwork, and writing
A new discovery about Stone Age life would most likely be made by?
an archaeologist
How do historians help us learn about the past?
they study written evidence
What evidence suggests that early people believed in life after death?
began burying the dead with great care. provided the dead with toold, weapons, and other goods thought to be needed in the after life.
What marked the beginning of civilization?
the rise of cities
Where did the first cities emerge?
along rivers; Tigris and Euphrates; Nile River; Indus River; Huang He
What aided cultural diffusion among ancient peoples?
migration, trade, and warfare
The Code of Hammurabi was a major achievement for what reasons?
first attempt by a ruler to codify all the laws that would govern a state
What geographic feature had the greatest influence on ancient Egypt?
the Nile River
Middle eastern civilization was spread throughout the Mediterranean by who?
Persians
What holy text is contained in the Mahabharata?
Bghaagavad- Gita
According to the Bhagavad-Gita, what is an important Aryan religious belief?
religious beliefs about the immortality of the soul and the importance of duty
What technological advances were achieved by the Chinese?
an accurate calendar, bronzemaking, made silk thread, fishing reels, wheelbarrows, made the frist books, durable paper,
What term refers to people who trace their inheritance and descent through the mother's side? father's side?
matrilineal; patrilineal
khoisan people adapted to the Kalahari environment by doing what?
gathered roots and herbs and hunting small game
Monsoon winds aided trade between East Africa and ___.
India
What leader set up a muslim dynasty in Songhai?
Askia Muhammad
King Ezana of Axum strengthnd ties with the Mediterranean world by doing what?
by merging cultures
What ruler made a hajj that resulted in trading and diplomatic ties between Mali and other Muslim states?
Mansa Musa
The fact that the city of Mohenjo-Daro was carefully planned is evidence of what?
a strong central government
Why was the Magna Carta important?
it protected the privelages of the barons. recognized legal rights of citizens and the church. asserted nobles had certain rights. Made it clear that the monarch must obey the law.
A major conflict between the Holy Roman emperors and the popes concerned what?
Gregory 7 wanted to make the church independent of secular rulers. He also banned the practice of LAY INVESTITURE.
Henry 6 felt he was above the pope. Solved by the Concordat of Worms .church=sole power to elect and invest bishops w/ spiritual authority. emperor= right to invest them with fiefs
The incan road system was built primarily for the purpose of allowing what?
the quick movement of the army
The Incan Chosen Women were trained to do what?
prepare ritual food and drink and make the elaborate wool worn by the Saya Inca and the Coya
Describe the influence of Middle American civiliaztions on North American cultures?
many religious beliefs are the same and the way they eat and farm
Describe Mayan government.
had a ruling chief surrounded by nobles= military leaders&official, women occasionally governed. priests held great power
The manor economy was based on what?
a feudalistic society
New agricultural technologies in the middle ages led to what?
a surplus of food which in turn led to a rise in population
What helped unite Charlemagne's empire?
the idea of a untied christian community
Chivalry governed relations bewteen who and who?
noblemen and noblewomen
The church had great power over people during the Middle Ages because?
the only way to avoid the tortures of hell was to believe in christ and participate in the sacrements. The church administred the sacrements.
Which group dominated the economic and political life of towns during the high middle ages?
monarchs, nobles, and church
Greek theater evolved out of what?
popular myths and legends
Alexander's most lasting achievement was what?
the spread of greek culture
A form of government controlled by a small, powerful elite from the business class is called?
oligarchy
Athens enjoyed a golden age under the leadership of who?
Pericles
According to Aristotle, the best government was ___.
by a single, strong virtuous leader.
In the fields of art and literature, Romans were generally influenced by the culture of what ancient people?
Greece
The first American civiliztion emerged where?
tropical forests along the Mexican Gulf coasts
What civilization ruled an area that included the Andes mountains?
The Incas
India enjoyed a golden age during the Gupta dynasty because?
trading and farming flourished; power was left in the hands of individual villages.
Which philosophy taught that government should pass strict laws and enforce them with harsh punishments?
legalism
the trade route that linked China with the west became know as the what?
Silk Road
In Hindu society, the purpose of the caste system was to do what?
help ensure social order
Han emperors based their rule on the teachings of what political thinker
Confucius
China became the most technologically advanced civilization in the world under the rule of what dyansty?
Han
The Byzantine empire reached its greatest size under who's rule?
Justinian
What group of people finally conquered the Byzantine empire?
Ottomans
The split between the Sunni and Shiite Muslims began with disagreement over what?
who would be caliph
What word best describes Muslim trade?
international; exstensive
Sikhism blended the beliefs of Islam with those of what religion?
Hinduism
What ruler strenghtened the Mughal empire by promoting religious harmony through tolerance?
Akbar
What governmental characteristic was common between the Ottoman and Safavid empires?
each had ONE strong leader
The Nubian capital of Meroe was an important producer of what?
iron ores
Which philosophy taught that government should pass strict laws and enforce them with harsh punishments?
legalism
the trade route that linked China with the west became know as the what?
Silk Road
In Hindu society, the purpose of the caste system was to do what?
help ensure social order
Han emperors based their rule on the teachings of what political thinker
Confucius
China became the most technologically advanced civilization in the world under the rule of what dyansty?
Han
The Byzantine empire reached its greatest size under who's rule?
Justinian
What group of people finally conquered the Byzantine empire?
Ottomans
The split between the Sunni and Shiite Muslims began with disagreement over what?
who would be caliph
What word best describes Muslim trade?
international; exstensive
Sikhism blended the beliefs of Islam with those of what religion?
Hinduism
What ruler strenghtened the Mughal empire by promoting religious harmony through tolerance?
Akbar
What governmental characteristic was common between the Ottoman and Safavid empires?
each had ONE strong leader
The Nubian capital of Meroe was an important producer of what?
iron ores