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75 Cards in this Set

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Globe
a scale model of Earth, especially useful for looking at the entire earth or at large areas of its surface.
Continent
One of seven large landmasses on Earth.
Island
A landmass smaller than a continent and completely surrounded by water.
Ocean
The largest part of the earth’s water surface, often divided into 4 smaller oceans.
Grid
The pattern of lines that circle the earth in east-west and north-south directions.
Latitude
A measure of distance north or south of the equator.
Longitude
A measure of distance east or west of the prime meridian.
Equator
The imaginary line of latitude that lies halfway between the North and South poles.
Parallel
A line of latitude
Prime Meridian
The imaginary line of longitude that runs through Greenwich, England, from the North Pole to the South Pole.
Meridian
A line of longitude.
Degree
A unit of measurement of distance on the earth’s surface.
Hemisphere
Half of the earth such as the Northern or Southern hemispheres or the Western or Eastern hemispheres.
Map
A flat diagram of all or part of the earth’s surface.
Atlas
An organized collection of maps in one book.
Map Projection
One of a variety of ways of presenting a round earth on a flat map.
Great–Circle Route
The shortest route between any two points on earth.
Directional Indicator
An element of a map that shows which directions are north, south, east, or west.
Scale
An element of a map that indicates distances between two points on a map.
Legend
An element on a map that explains what the symbols on a map represent.
Compass Rose
A directional indicator that has arrows pointing north, south, east, and west.
Site
the place where something is located
Absolute Location
the exact spot on earth where something is found, usually stated in longitude and latitude.
Situation
the position of a place in relation to other places
Relative Location
the position of a place in relation to other places
Drought
long period with little or no rain
Spatial Interaction
the movement of people, goods, and ideas
Cartography
the study of maps and mapmaking
Topography
relating to surface features
Meteorology
the field of geography that specializes in weather and weather forecasting
Solar system
The sun and the nine planets and all the other objects that revolve around the sun
Planet
a spherical object that revolves around a star
Satellite
a body that orbits another body
Rotation
the act of turning around an axis; one complete spin of the earth on its axis, which takes 24 hours
Revolution
the orbit of an object in space; the orbit of the earth around the sun, which takes one earth year
Tropics
Warm areas in the low latitudes
Polar region
a cold area near the North or South Pole
Solstice
one of two times a year when the earth’s polar axis points at its greatest angle toward or away from the sun
Tropic of Capricorn
the line of latitude, located 23 degrees south of the equator, struck by the sun’s most direct rays of energy during the December solstice
Antarctic Circle
the line of latitude, located 66 degrees south of the equator, south of which all areas have 24 hours of daylight during the December solstice and 24 hours of darkness during the June solstice
Arctic Circle
the line of latitude, located 66 degrees north of the equator, north of which all areas have 24 hours of darkness during the December solstice and 24 hours of daylight during the June solstice
Tropic of Cancer
the line of latitude located 23 degrees north of the equator, struck by the suns most direct rays of energy during the June solstice
Equinox
one of two times each year when the earth’s polar axis is not pointed toward or away from the sun but is at a 90 degree angle to the sun
Earth System
the interactions of elements on and around the earth
Atmosphere
the layer of gases that surround the earth
Lithosphere
the solid surface of the planet that forms the continents and ocean floor
Hydrosphere
the physical system made up of all of earth’s water
Biosphere
the part of the earth in which all of the planet’s plant and animal life exists
Weather
the condition of the atmosphere at a given place and time
Climate
weather conditions in an area averaged over a long period of time
Temperature
the measurement of heat
Greenhouse Effect
the warming of the earth created by trapping the sun’s energy in the earth’s atmosphere
Air Pressure
the measurement of the force exerted by air
Prevailing Wind
a wind that usually blows from the same direction year round
Trade Wind
An east-to-west wind that blows from the sub-tropical high-pressure zone toward the equatorial low-pressure zone
Doldrums
calm areas centered around the equator
Westerly
a west-to-east wind that dominates the middle latitude
Polar Wind
the type of wind that dominates the high latitudes and brings cold conditions into the middle latitudes, usually blowing from the east
Front
a zone formed by the meeting of two air masses with very different temperatures and amounts of moisture
Remote Sensor
a device attached to a satellite that collects information about the earth
Landsat
a type of satellite that collects information about the earth’s surface and the condition of Earth’s environment
Evaporation
the process by which liquid is changed to a gas
Humidity
the amount of water vapor in the air
Condensation
the process by which water vapor changes from a gas into liquid droplets
Precipitation
condensed droplets of water vapor that fall as rain, snow, sleet, or hail
Hurricane
a tropical storm that brings violent winds, heavy rain, and high seas, also called a typhoon
Typhoon
a tropical storm that brings violent winds, heavy rain, and high seas, also called a hurricane
Tornado
a small, twisting, highly destructive storm that usually forms along fronts in the middle latitudes
Elevation
height on the earth’s surface above or below sea level
Orographic Effect
an effect of mountains on climate that produces moisture on the windward side and dryness on the leeward side
Rain-shadow Effect
the forming of a desert on the leeward side of the mountains due to lack of moisture
Monsoon
the wind that blows from the same direction for months at a definite season of the year
Steppe
short-grass vegetation, a steppe climate is often found between deserts and more humid climates
Permafrost
water below a tundra surface that remains frozen throughout the year
Irrigation
the watering of land through pipes, ditches, and canals