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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
culture
total knowledge, attutides, and behaviors shared by and passed on by the members of a specific group
society
group that shares a geographic region, a sense of identity, and a culture
ethnic group
a specific group that shares a language, customs, and a common heritage
innovation
taking exisitng technology and resources and creating something new to meet a need

it's the idea
diffusion
the spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior to different societies

it's the spread
cultural hearth
a site of innovation from which basic ideas materials, and technology diffuse to many cultures

it's the place where the idea starts
acculturation
occurs when a society changes because it accepts or adopts an innovation

it's the acceptance/adoption
dialect
versions of a language that changes in speech patterns related to class, region, or other cultural changes
religion
a belief in a power(s) that is regarded as the creator(s) and maintainer(s) of the universe; beliefs and values that define how people worship the divine being or forces, and how they behave toward each other
birth rate
number of live births per thousand population. World average is 22 per thousand.
fertility rate
and total?
the average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime, if she had children at the current rate for her country. Replacement rate is 2.1; current worldwide average is 3.0.

avg. # of children born to a woman of childbearing age given her country’s BR and DR
mortality rate
death rate, or the number of deaths per thousand people.
infant mortality rate
number of deaths among infants under age one per thousand live births.
rate of natural increase (aka. population growth rate)
the population growth rate, found by subtracting the mortality rate from the birthrate.

(BR-DR)÷10
population pyramid
a graphic device that shows sex and age distribution of a population.
push-pull factors
reasons for migrating – ones that cause people to leave their homeland, or ones that attract people to another location.
population density
the average number of people who live in a measurable area, such as a square mile; used to determine how heavily populated an area is. (# inhabitants/total amt of land they occupy).
carrying capacity
number of organisms a piece of land can support
State
self-governing political entity
often referred to as country
nation
a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity.

tightly-knit group of people which share a common culture
nation-state
a nation and a state that occupy the same territory.
democracy
a type of government in which citizens hold political power, either directly, or through elected representatives.
monarchy
a type of government in which a ruling family headed by a king or queen holds political power and may or may not share the power with citizen bodies.
dictatorship
a type of government in which an individual or group holds complete political power
communism
a type of government in which nearly all political power and means of production are held by the government in the name of the people.
landlocked
country surrounded by other land with no direct outlet to the sea
urban geography
study of how people use space in cities
cities
area with large population that is a center of business and culture.
suburbs
political units which touch the borders of the central city or other suburbs that touch the city
metropolitan area
city, its suburbs and exurbs linked together economically to form a functional area
urbanization
rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that result.
central business district (CBD)
core of a city that is based on commercial activity.
economy
the production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people.
economic system
the way people produce and exchange goods and services
command economy
production of goods and services is determined by a central government, which usually owns the means of production. also called a "planned" economy.
market economy
production of goods and services is determined by the demand from consumers. also called a "demand" economy, or capitalism.
natural resources
materials on or in the earth -- such as trees, fish, or coal -- that have economic value
infrastructure
basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems.
per capita income
average amount of money earned by each person in a political unit; used to compare economies
GNP
measures the total value of all goods and services produced by a country over a year or other specified period of time.

imports and exports--everything!
GDP
total value of goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time.

domestic--cities, countries, states, etc.
factors of culture
food and shelter
religion
relationships to family and others
language
education
security/protection
political and social organization
creative expression
immigrant vs. emigrant
migrant?
immigrant: kinda like temporary stay, will eventually move out of a country (move in)

emigrant: permanent, will stay in the country (move out)

migrant: moves from place to place
aspects of population
birth and death rates
distribution
density
developed country vs. developing country
developed: higher per capita income, varied economy (esp. with quaternary activites like computer software development)

developing: low GDP, limited development on all levels of economic activities, lack industrial base, struggles to provide residents with needed items
The three main factors that cause population change to a specified area are:
birth, death, migration
Stage 1
Both high birth rates and death rates keep changing in the first stage of the population model giving a small population
Stage 2
Birth rates remain high, but death rates fall rapidly causing high population growth.
Stage 3
 Birth rates now fall rapidly while death rates continue to fall. The total population begins to peak and the population increase slows to a constant.
Stage 4
 Both birth rates and death rates remain low, fluctuating with 'baby booms' and epidemics of illnesses and disease. This results in a steady population
State has 4 important characteristics:
population
territory (land)
sovereignty (power)
government (organization)
stateless nation
nation (group) within a State that doesn't have land
4 types of government
democracy
monarchy
communism
dictatorship
component of metropolitan area
city
suburbs
exurbs
a megalopolis is formed when..
several metropolitan areas grow together
charac. of country
size
shape
location
push factors
job
political
weather
pull factor
education
family
house
job
result of rapid urbanization
cities and their surrounding areas grew rapidly
traditional economy Chr.
trades w/o money
"barter"
lowest level
command economy characteristic
production is determined by government
planned economy
often dictatorship
market economy chr.
production determined by the buyer (how much they buy, price change)
demand economy
capitalism
no boundary
mixed economy chr.
combo of command and market
benefits all
no clear trend
free enterprise chr.
competition
no boundary
democracy
supply and demand
capitalism chr.
private property ownership
individuals and companies compete for their own gain
economic levels
primary
secondary
tertiary
quaternary
primary level
raw material
(timer, iron)

raw
secondary level
adds value to materials by changing their form
(manufacturing automobiles)

transform
tertiary level
provides business or pro services
(salespeople, teachers, doctors)

sell
quaternary level
information, management, research services provided by highly-trained persons

service
types of natural resources
renewable
non-renewable
inexhaustible energy sources
renewable
can be replaced
(trees)
non-renewable
cannot be replaced
(metals, fossil fuels, natural gas, coal)
inexhaustible energy resources
used for producing power
unlimited in quantity
solar or planetary process
(sunlight, winds, tides)
important systems of infrastructure
transportation
communication
state morphology concept
boundary and shape can present problems or unify
compact
circle
easier to defend
easy internal control and communication
max. land w/ min. border
fragmented
parts separated by water or foreign land
must improve internal contact
capital(main) location is often difficult
protruded/prorupted
compact with extension
isolated protusion
perforated
swiss cheese
problems can occur for the internal countries
elongated
no central compact territory
difficult communication and transportation
different "culture" at opposite ends