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99 Cards in this Set

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Define Geography
Study of the earth
Absolute location
A way people can find things.. the longitude and latitude of a location
Hemisphere
Two halves of a circle
Latitude & Longitude
Imaginary parallel lines on the Earth's surface
Longitude is which direction
up & down
Latitude is which direction
across
Grid
The system that makes it so we can find places on the Earth's surface -- latitude & longitude
Relative location
Places near other places
Region
a part of a country, the world
Dallas TX absolute location
32 N, 96 W
5 geographical themes
1. location
2. place
3. human/environment interaction
4. movement
5. region
What uniform region do you live in?
Functional region
Grassy region
What symbol do you use to locate highway
curvey lines
What symbol do you use to pinpoint airports
an airplane
Why is there a key (legend)
so you know what the symbols mean
Atmosphere
Air that surrounds the Earth
hydrosphere
Ocean, rivers, lakes and other bodies of water on the Earth
lithosphere
The Earth's crust
litho means rock
biosphere
Where life is found
mantle
the portion of the about 1800 mi think between the Earth's crust and the core
fold
bends in layers of rocks
fault
a break in the continuity of a body of rock or of a vein, with dislocation along the plane of the fracture (fault plane).
weathering
process that breaks down rock
erosion
The wearing away of the Earth's surface
glacier
large bodies of ice
Which planet (#) is the Earth away from the sun
3rd
What causes the plants on the Earth's surface to move?
Internal forces
What causes the Earth's surface to change shape?
Erosion
What are the consequences if the Earth's mantle stopped circulating molten rock?
Increased earthquakes because the Earth would no longer have the flexibility to move as it does now. And increased volcanic activity to get rid of the current store of molten rock under the surface.
Isthmus
narrow piece of land that connects two larger landmasses and segments two bodies of water
plateau
a land area having a relatively level surface considerably raised above adjoining land on at least one side, and often cut by deep canyons.
archipelago
group of closely scattered islands
Continental Shelf
A submerged border of a continent that slopes gradually and extends to a point of steeper descent to the ocean bottom.
groundwater
the water beneath the surface of the ground, consisting largely of surface water that has seeped down: the source of water in springs and wells.
Water cycle
The cycle of evaporation and condensation that controls the distribution of the earth's water as it evaporates from bodies of water, condenses, precipitates, and returns to those bodies of water.
Evaporation
Change in water's physical state from liquid to gas
North and South America are joined by what body of land?
The Isthmus of Panama
What are the 4 types of landforms?
1. mountains
2. plateaus
3. hills
4. planes
Where is freshwater found?
Lakes, rivers, and streams
Natural resource
Element made from the Earth and not from people but people can still use it. Trees, water, land
Renewable resource
Natural resources that continuously reprocess themselves...trees, animals
non-renewable resources
resources that can never be replaced once used up.
imports
resources or good brought from another country
exports
Resources and goods sent from one country to another.
Which region of the world exports the most OIL?
Middle East
Which region of the world imports the most OIL?
United States
What determines the importance of resources?
People's need
Can non-renewable resources be recycled?
No
Can renewable resources be recycled?
Yes
Weather
condition of the atmospher in one place suring a short period of time
Summarize the relationship between resources and supply
The less supply of a resource the more valuable it becomes
Climate
weather pattern that is experienced during a long period of time.
Axis
An imaginarey line that runs through the Earth's center between the North Pole and the South Pole
Temperature
How hot or cold something is.
Revolution
The Earth's movement as it moves around the sun. The Earth revolves around the sun in 365 1/4 days.
Equinox
When the sun is directly over the equator
Solsitice
The northernmost point on the earth at a given time. Either of two times of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator. The summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere occurs about June 21, when the sun is in the zenith at the tropic of Cancer; the winter solstice occurs about December 21, when the sun is over the tropic of Capricorn. The summer solstice is the longest day of the year and the winter solstice is the shortest.
Latitude of the Tropic of Cancer?
23 1/2 degrees N
Latitude of the Tropic of Capricorn?
23 1/2 degrees S
How does the revolution of the Earth cause seasons?
Seasons are caused by the distance of a place on Earth from the sun. When a place is in the direct path of the sun it is summer and when the Earth has rotated so a place is not facing the sun then it is winter.
How are temperatures of places effected by the Earth's tilt?
Places get varying degrees of sunlight.
Why does March 21 generally mark the beginning of spring in the Northern hemisphere?
Beginning on March 21, the Northern hemisphere begins to move closer and closer to direct exposure to the sun.
Prevailing wind
Winds that blow in a fairly consistent pattern in a region
doldrums
a windless area
precipitation
The falling of moisture to the Earth
windward
In a direction from which the wind blows; against the wind.
leeward
the direction in which the wind is blowing
rain shadow
An area having relatively little precipitation due to the effect of a barrier, such as a mountain range, that causes the prevailing winds to lose their moisture before reaching it.
Name 3 kinds of previaling winds.
1. trade winds
2. westerlies
3. polar easterlies
The name of the prevailing wind found from the equator to 30 degrees N or S.
Trade winds
The name of the previaling wind found from 30 degrees to 60 degrees N or S.
Westerlies
The name of the prevailing wind fourd from 60 degrees to 90 degrees N or S
Polar Easterlies
Why do the climates of the low, middle, and high latitudes differ?
The climates are influenced by the winds, closeness of water, and relative distance from the sun.
How do wind and ocean currents effect climates?
Wind and ocean currents cool the land over which it passes.
Which factors effect the climate in your region?
Our climate is effected by our closeness to the ocean, the delta, and the rivers. We also are prone to winter storms that are drop moisture so the clouds can lift over the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
natural vegetation
Plant life that grows in an area that has not been changed by people
oasis
an area of lush vegitation
deciduous
trees or plants that loose their leaves each year/season
Mixed forest
includes trees that are both evergreen and deciduous
chaparral
A dense thicket of shrubs and small trees.
Prairie
An extensive area of flat or rolling, predominantly treeless grassland, especially the large tract or plain of central North America.
permafrost
frozen subsoil
timberline
the altitude above sea level at which timber ceases to grow.
taiga
A subarctic, evergreen coniferous forest of northern Eurasia located just south of the tundra and dominated by firs and spruces.
smog
a haze caused by the sun's ultraviolet radiation
What and where are the five main climate regions?
1. Tropical climates - moist, warm climate around the equator.
2. Dry climate - dry, hot climate found in desert regions.
3. Mid latitude - mild temperatures found in the middle latitudes
4. High latitude - cold temperatures found in tundra regions.
5. Highland climate - cold temperatures found near mountain regions.
Why do tropical climates have high temperatures year around?
Tropical climates are found in near the equator and the oceans and seas surrounding the equator keep the temperatures constantly warm and moist.
How does El Nino effect weather?
El Nino changes weather patterns by changing the wind patterns in a region.
In what ways does the Earth's climate changed due to human/natural processes?
Natural processes -- Increases in the sun's activity can cause the Earth to heat. Changes to continental drift, ocean currents, volcanic activity, earth's tilt change the winds and heating patterns of the Earth.
Human processes -- Green house gasses are caused by pollution that is human made resulting increased temperatures.
Culture
the growing of life
Subsistance farming
depends heavily on human labor.
Population density
the number of people in a square mile or square km
popluation distribution
the population patterns in an area
tornado
a powerful whirling wind storm
hurricane
a powerful whirling storm that forms over oceans
tsunami
huge ocean waves
pollution
unclean or impure elements in the environment
Where is tornado alley?
Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri
Why is industry more important in developed countries than in developing countries?
The ecomony in developed countries is dependent upon industry and technologies for ecomonic stability. The economies in developing nations are more independent with the majority of residents being farmers.