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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the cutting down and clearing away of trees and forests
longitude lines
a set of imaginary lines that go around the earth over the poles, dividing it east and west. The prime meridian is labeled the zero-degree line for longitude.
latitude line
set of imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator, and that are used in locating things north and south. The equator is the zero degree latitude line.
the imaginary line that divides the earth into northern and southern halves.
political map
a map that shows cities, boundaries of states and countries, and man-made borders
physical map
A map that shows physical features, such as mountains, plains,and other forms that land and water take.
absolute location
the exact place on earth where a geographic feature is found.
relative location
describes a place in relation to other places around it.
a religion that originated in India in about 500b.c. and spread to china in a.d. 400 - founder was Siddhartha Gautama
a monotheistic religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed, and the biggest cultural and religious influence in North Africa
a philosophy based on the teachings of Lao-Tzu, who lived in China in the 6th century b.c. and beleived in preserving and restoring harmony in the individual, with nature, and in the universe, with little interference from the government
a movement based on the teachings of confucious (Kung Fu Tzu)Which stressed the importance of education in an ordered society in which one respercts one's elders and obeys the government.
th first monotheistic religion. The founder was Abraham and the followers are Jews.
The dominant religion of India
Pillars of Islam
Faith - believe in only one god
Prayer- 5 times a day facing Mecca
Charity - give money to the poor
Fasting- during the month of Ramaden
Hajj- Pilgrimage to Mecca
population density
the average number of people who live in a certain area, divide the number of inhabitants by the amount of land that they occupy
the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that they present
push-pull factors
factors that cause people to either leave a place or migrate to it
someone who comes to a new place with the intention of staying there
the movement of peoples within a country or region
rate of natural increase
(population growth rate)
the rate at which population is growing, found by subtracting the mortality rate from the birthrate.
birthrate / mortality rate
birth rate- the number of live births per total population

death (mortality) rate-the number of deaths per thousand people
population pyramid
a graphic device that shows gender and age distribution of a population
continental drift theory
the hypothesis that all continents were once joined in a supercontinent (Pangea) that split apart over millions of years
a debt reducing deal where an organizaton offers to pay off a certain amount of government debt in return for protection of a certain portion of rain forest
gross national product (GNP)
the total value of all goods and services produced by a country in a certain amount of time
Gross domestic product (GDP)
the dollar sum of all goods and services produced in a nation in a year
command economy
economic system in which production of goods and services is determined by a central government, which usually owns the means of production
per capita income
the average amount of money earned by each person in a political unit
an extended period of decline in general business activity
5 themes of geography
human/environment interaction
Shape, Size, Location
parts of the 5 themes of geography
Relative Location
describes a place in relation to other places around it
a religion based on the belief that spirits and ghosts inhabit sacred objects such as trees and rocks
the beleif in more than one god
Theocracy (theocratic government)
a form of government in which religious leaders control the government, relying on religious law and religious scholars
a type of government in which an individual or group holds complete political power
type of gov. where citizens hold political power either directly or through elected representatives
type of gov. where a ruling family headed by a king or queen holds political power and may or may not share it with citizens
system in which the government holds all political power and means of production
a disease affecting a large population over a wide geographic area (ex. AIDS)
a policy of complete seperation of the races, instituted by th white minority government in South Africa in 1948
a pandemic STD having a devastating effect on Africa
Berlin Conference
a conference of 14 european nations held in 1884-1885 in Berlin, Germany to establish rules for political control of Africa
site of a nuclear power plant near Kiev, in Ukraine, where there was a catastrophic acccident in 1986
Ethnic Group
group of people who share language, customs, and a common heritage
Stateless Nation
a nation of people that does not have a territory to legally occupy
the name of a territory when a nation and state occupy the same territory
a versiuon of languages that reflects changes in speech patterns due to class, region, or cultural changes
the production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people
Economic System
the way people produce and exchange goods
the religious/cultural practice of having more than one wife
Caste System
the Aryan system of Social classes in India and one of the cornerstones of Hinduism in which each person is born into a specific clss and can only move into a different one through reincarnation
the cultural change that occurs when individuals in a society accept or adopt an innovation
One Child Policy
set up in the 1900's, made it law that each family could only have one child. led to a severe gender difference (way more men than women)
a kind of popular Algerian musicdeveloped in the 1920s by poor urban children that is fast-paced with danceable rythms; was sometimes used as a form of rebellion to expose political unhappiness
a tent of Central Asia's nomads
discrimination against Jews
a workplace where workers work for long hours for low pay in poor conditions to enrich manufacturers
Nelson Mandela
one of the leaders of the African National Congress who led the struggle to end apartheid and was elected president in 1994 in the first all-race election in South Africa
the leader of India's drive for independence from Britain. he beleived in nonviolent protest, and was assassinated in 1948, just after India secured its independence?
Dalai Lama
winner of the nobel peace prize for peace efforts in Tibet and spiritual leader of Tibet
Mao Zedong
the leader of the communists in China who defaeted the nationalists in 1949
Yasser Arafat
(1929-2004); leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization; Nobel Peace Prize in 1994 after signing Oslo peace agreement; loved by palestinians, hated by israelis
A region of northern India and Pakistan over which several destructive wars have been fought.
high plateau in China that is north of the Himalayas and the home of the Dalai Lama. Has been fighting for independence.
one of the republics that remains a part of russia after the collapse of the soviet union despite independence movements and violent upheaval.
Artificial Boundary
a man-made boundary such as a wall that divides places from each other
Natural Boundary
a nature made boundary such as mountains or a river that divides one place from another.