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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Complete the following analogy. Great Tradition: Little Tradition
elite:commoner
The Mesopotamian king resembled the Hawaiian king in that both
headed a divine cult, built and maintained temples, appointed officials, and coordinated the ritual calendar
Incan rulers were like Mesopotamian kings because they
asserted a symbolic connection between themselves, the fertility of nature and general well-being of society.
The primary difference between a wealth economy and a staple economy is that
wealth objects support the status hierarchy and are not intended for subsistence purposes
Members of stratified societies can be described as having
unequal access to social status and basic resources
The complex social system the Inca relied on ____________ for information storage
knotted cords
How a society organizes social power is a very important cultural variable because
the organization of social power limits the scale of society and shapes all aspects of culture
In comparison to tribal societies, production and distribution of goods in Mesopotamia and the Andes
numerous full time craft specialists probably worked for rations under an extensive bureaucracy
How does growth in scale benefit elite individuals
1.promotes the top ruler
2.the top ruler receives a disproportionate increase in power
3.increases the total number of rulers at lower levels of the hierarchy
The settlement of Abu Hureyra differed from the city-states of Mesopotamia in that
people lacked invidious social ranking
Mesopotamian elites were able to construct a society that exploited commoners and enhanced their own lifestyle by
1.controlling access to productive land.
2.fixing exchange values on commodities
3.identifying themselves with deities
Neolithic tribal villages would invest social product above minimum consumption needs by
feasting, maintaining alliances, and storing it for security
The Inca empire was maintained by
mobilization of a vast labor force
To be effective, bureaucrats
must surrender their will and conscience to the dictates of their superior
Explanations that make technology a primary factor in societal growth need to consider
who calls for the development of this technology and who directs its use.
Neolithic peoples of Southern Mesopotamia became refugees because
global climate changes lead to droughts and floods that lead to catastrophic crop failures
In non-monetary, non-market economies, like the Ur III, exchange values of items are
fixed by the ruler
Both the Incan and the Ur III empires
were directed by dynastic families
Pre-Inca Andean peoples had already mastered the art of
metallurgy.
weaving.
pottery
The Hindu caste system emphasizes
social hierarchies based on purity
The legal system in the early Hindu kingdoms
gave ritual purity and economic advantages to those of the upper ranks
From which three language families do most of the languages in the Indian subcontinent derive from
Sino-Tibetan, Dravidian, Indo-European
The Arthasastra included all of the following advice for ruler except
guide of professional ethics
The three primary aspects of caste
endogamous, ranked, based on ritual purity
Evidence that chiefdoms and kingdoms were not irreversible social formations is shown by
the upland areas where shifting cultivation was in practice, o often only fragile chiefdoms could be constructe
In Burma, transformation from a headman to a chief included
a productive resource base, skillful manipulation of marriage exchanges, ability to sponsor large feasts, sacrifice cattle, and support an extended household and network of supporters.
Which of the following statements is not true about state finance in the Hindu kingdom
commercial activities were regulated to extract the maximum feasible revenue
The varna social system, which gave ritual priority and economic advantage to the upper ranks.Laws supported this system
by adjusting punishments for the crime and rank of each individual
Each sakdina (dignity) was worth acertain amount of lanSakdina in the Thai kingdom was
over half of the population was vulnerable to servitude because of their lack of adequate sakdin
Cultural hegemony
preponderant influence, or authority by an elite in the production and reproduction of a society's moral order and associated cultural beliefs, symbols, and practices
In contrast to Hawaiian chiefdoms where __________ in India ______________
the chief is endowed with sacred power and is dangerous to lower-ranked individuals; lower-ranked individuals endanger higher-ranked individuals
The most "impure" cast in Hindu society
Sudra
Which situation is most likely to occur with respect to Hindu marriage customs
Hindu women may marry a man of a higher sub-caste.
Functionalist interpretations of the caste system
argue that it provide individuals with employment, pattern for living, and personal security
Bride-burning in modern India
a remnant of traditional India where women's fertility is frowned upon.
Tamil Hindus in south India worship androgynous deities that
represent gender balance and complimentarity in marriage.
Like the cattle of East Africa, Indian cattle
are not usually used for meat.
According to the Ramayana, Sita is
the ideal role model for a Hindu wife.
Emic views of purdah include
is attributed to ideas of honor and respect.
Ancient village states such as Inca Peru and imperial China
drew their support from peasant villages over an extensive region.
The critical difference between Amazonian or Australian shamanism and Chinese high shamanism was that
Chinese high shamanism involved highly exclusive communication with specific ancestors for wisdom and support for the social hierarchy
Filial piety:
obligation of children to respect their ancestors
Subsistence intensification:
people work harder to raise total production per unit of lan
Find the comparable analogy to the Great Tradition: Little Tradition
elite culture: peasant culture
_____________ held the highest social status in Chinese society.
Scholars
Chinese farmers maintained soil fertility despite many years of permanent agriculture by
using organic fertilizers.
choice of crops.
multi-cropping.
The system of social, economic, ritual, and political ties that link peasantry to the elites is known as
the folk-urban continuum.
Feature that Chinese cosmology has in common with Australian and Amazonian cosmologies was
complementary opposition.
Features of domestic life for women in China did not typically include
female ownership of property.
Geertz's concept of labor-intensive agricultural system that provides incentive for population growth is known as
agricultural involution
Unlike many other imperial societies entry to the elite classes during the gentry period in China
were based on examinations of the Confucian classics.
Scapulimancy:
divination by interpreting the pattern of cracks formed in heated animals scapula or turtle shells
New Chinese rulers transformed tribal societies under their control into ethnic groups by
freezing their boundaries and imposing formal identities and cultural markers to make them easier to control
__________ and __________ became the foundation for Chinese civilization
Wild rice and millet
Shang royalty affirmed their status
1.by creating laws that would benefit them
2.using royal objects.
3.torturing lawbreakers
Evidence that Confucianism was institutionalized by 124 BC includes
the creation of an imperial university focused on the five classics
Unlike the kingdoms of Mesopotamia, Chinese cities
were not self-self-sufficient
Ethnic tribes under imperial rule
were allowed to be autonomous, but still paid taxes
Rulers under the Shang dynasty were obligated not to be too oppressive because
they faced supernatural punishments such as natural disasters or overthrow by a rival