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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who started the revolution of the Mexicans against Spain and what class was he from?
Father Hidalgo - Creole
What classes fought against each other in the first Mexican revolution?
Creoles and Peninsulares against Indians and Mestizos
Who led the second Mexican revolution and what was his class?
Fr. Morelos - Mestizo.
Who led the third Mexican revolution and what was his class?
Augustin de Iturbide - Creole.
Why did the Creoles rebel from Spain?
They wanted rights and land reform.
Who claimed independence for Brazil and when?
Prince Pedro - 1889.
Why was Benito Juarez unique in Mexican history?
He was an educated Indian who was once a slave, and became the only Indian president to be elected 4 times.
Why did the Mexicans rebel again in 1910?
Dictator denied rights

Land reform
Who was Pancho Villa and what did he do?
Was a bandit, revolutionary

Attacked Tuscon (AZ), killed many people

What valuable natural resource does Mexico have?
What is NAFTA? How can it help the Mexican economy?
North American Free Trade Agreement

Mexicans get jobs and $$$, ongoing production w/o tarrifs
Where did the first Native Americans come from, and why were they able to get to America?
Came from Asia - came across Bering Strait.
How did corn become food of the Americas?
Teosinte plant - would chew in mountains - throw in garbage pile - seperate male and female parts combined to form tassel
What was the first great civilisation of the Americans?
Mayas - Yucatan Peninsula
What type of writing did the Myans have?
What two major scientific achievements did the Myans make?
Concept of zero
What type of buildings did the Myans have?
What civilisation replaced the Myans?
Where were the Azteks located?
Mexico City area.
What was the capital of the Azteks called and where was it?

Modern Mexico City
What did the Azteks do to their enemies?
Sacrificed to sun gods - cut out hearts while still alive.
What did the Azteks' legendary god tell them to do?
A white god would come - would tell them to stop human sacrifice

Who led the Spanish into the Aztek kingdom?
Why did the Azteks fear Cortez?
Thought he was white god returning - thought they were going to be punished for human sacrifice.
Who was the Azteks' king and what happened to him?
Montezuma - killed by his own people - gave all gold to Cortez
What civilisation existed in Peru?
What were the main foods of the Incas?
POTAOTES, beans, squash
Who was the king of the Incas?
Which Spanish explorer destroyed the Incas and why?
Pizzaro - For gold - killed King
When did the first Americans get to America?
50,000 y/ago
When did Americans begin farming?
8000 yrs ago
When did the Mayans exist?
Approx. 1500 BC
When did the Mayans dissapear?
800 AD
What treaty divided the new world that was sanctioned by the pope?
Treaty of Tordesillas
Where did the line of demarcation that divided the "new world" go through? What was the result of it?
Brazil - Brazilians speak Portugese, rest of S.A. speaks Spanish.
How could the Spanish rule be described?
Cruel and harsh.
What was the Encomienda System?
Forced labour for Indians - many wiped out.
Who was Bartolome de las Casas?
Stopped Indian labour - replaced with slavery of blacks.
Who were the Peninsulares?
Spaniards born in US - wealthy government rulers.
Who were the Creoles? Who did they resent?
American-born wealthymen - resented Peninsulares.
Who were the Mestizos?
Mixed Indians - European - farmers and shop keepers - in charge of mines
What did the church do?
Rich and powerful - taxed indians and others - built hospitals, schools, universities
What is a Hacienda?
A self-sufficient ranch or farm
What is a Maroon?
A colony of escaped slaves.
Who was Touissant L'Overture?
Black slave - rebelled against France - because of rebellion, LA territory was given to USA.
Who was Simon Bolivar?
A Venezualan creole - gained independence for Colombia and Venezuela in 1819.
Who was Jose de San Martin?
Creole - Independence for Argentina.
Who was Bernardo O'Higgins?
Joined San Martin to gain independence for Chile.
What did San Martin and Bolivar do together?
Freed Ecuador and Peru.
How was Fr. Hidalgo executed?
Firing squad.
Who was the Mexican dicator?
Profirio Diaz
Who raided America?
Pancho Villa
When did democracy return to Mexico?
What are some problems in Mexico?
Land (Ejidos) is community owned

Oil peaked in 80s, took out many loans, went bust, now lots of debt