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19 Cards in this Set

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Aryans
Hitler's "pure" race; had blonde hair and blue eyes; superior; Hitler planned to gain "living space" in Eastern Europe so the Aryans could colonize it
Wannsee Conference
January 1942 in Wannsee, Germany; officials met to formalize their plans; set out a systematic plan for exterminating Jews in concentration camps
"New Order"
Hitler's plan for making the European continent into a single polictical and economic system; invasion of the Soviet Union was part of the plan
Heinrich Himmler
head of the Schutzstaffel, or SS, the military branch of the Nazi Party; headed the Final Solution (destructin of Europe's entire Jewish population)
Genocide
willful, planned extermination of a group of people
Auschwitz
a huge death camp in Poland; people were systematically mrudered
Oscar Schindler
German industrialist who saved many Jews by employing them in his factories; in Poland and Czechoslovakia
Cold War
Suspicion and hostility between teh communist and Western democratic nations, waged primarily by political and economic means rather than with weapons; war of ideas between the Soviet Union and the United States
Truman Doctrine
declared that the United States must consider the spread of communism to be a threat to democracy; argued that the US must support free countries in danger of takeover; asked Congress for $400 million to help defend Greece and Turkey; wouldn't fight communism where it already existed
Containment
the US policy established the the Truman Doctrine that the US would commit itself to contain, or restrict, the spread of communism; only countries that wanted help
Marshall Plan
after US Secretary of State General George Marshall, new plan of massive economic assistance; encouraged European nations to work together to determine needs and remove trade barriers; 17 nations participated
Cominform
Communist Information Bureau; established by teh Soviet Union to oppose the Marshall Plan; included all European communist parties; unsuccessful; major effect was to create tension between communist and noncommunist parties in Europe
Marshall Tito
Yugoslavian; devoted communist; objected to Soviet domination of his country; announced that Yugoslavia would follow and independent path; by June 1948 Yugoslavia was expelled from Cominform
Federal Republic of Germany
declared by a constitutional assemply with the approval of the Western Allies in May 1949; known as West Germany; capial at Bonn; democratic; symbol of the East-West division of the Cold War
German Democratic Republic
also known as East Germany; established by the Soviet Unison in October 1949; communist
Berlin Airlift
organized by US and Great Britain; supplied West Berlin with food and supplies daily; in June 1948 when the Soviets blockaded the East German border to all land and water traffic into Berlin from the West; operated so efficiently that raw materials were also supplied to West Berlin factories; Soviets did not try to stop the airlift and in May 1949 lifted the blockade
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; 12 Western nations signed the treaty in April 1949; signers agreed that if one member nation were attacked, all members would take united action against the agressor; Greece and Turkey joined in 1952; West Germany in 1955; all members contributed to a NATO military force; relied heavily on US nuclear weapons to deter Soviet invasion of Wester Europe
results of the Nationalist and Communist Civil War ending in 1949
communists won and kept the mainland under Mao Zedong; Chinese Nationalists fled to Taiwan and formed a new government; US refused to acknowledge communist China and only recognized the Chinese in Taiwan
first Five Year Plan
began by the communists in 1953; for economic growth; modeled on similar Soviet plans; part of the plan was to build up China's industry; another part was land reform; Communists foarced landlords to give their land to the peasants; millions were killed during this violent change; peasants forced to collectivate farms; plan was a success: agricultural and industrial output increased