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104 Cards in this Set

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True or False

In Latin America, Social inequality and economic hardship led to rest and stability.
False

In Latin America, Social inequality and ecomonic hardship led to UNrest and INstability
a revolt usually by military leaders, against a nation's government

*in LA when unrest threatened law and order, the military would often state this.
coup d'etat
as Latin American nations madernized their economies, the gap between ___ and ___ widened.
the rich and the poor
the urban working class and the rural poor had little of no _____
education
*leftists

*rightists
*liberals

*conservatives
*lefts demanded _____
and supported ______

*rights favored preservation of the traditional _______
wanted to _____ the wealth and power of landlords and industrialists
* radical change
socialism

*social order
protect
as Latin American nations modernized, _______ became a major issue
land reforms
only ____, _____, and _____ had social revolutions that brought basic changes.
Mexico, Cuba, and Nicaragua
poverty, illiteracy, and unemployment fueled dicontent in ______?
Cuba
1959, this new 'ruler' seized power and has ruled ever since in Cuba
Fidel Castro
Castro set up a one-party rule and therefore Cuba became a ______ nation.
socialist
because of these actions made by Castro, the United States placed an _____ on Cuba, because they thought they were communist because of their interaction with the Soviet Union.
embargo
a complete halt to trade
embargo
the ruler that was overthrown in 1979, by rebels in Nicaragua
Anastasio Somoza
then after Anastasio's overthrowence, the _____ _____ gained control of the government
leftist Sandinistas
the Sandinistas were under who?
Daniel Ortega
the forces that opposed the Sandinistas were?
the contras

*the United States helped them
in 1990, the new government in Nicaragua was led by?
Violeta Chamorro
in the 1960s-1970s ____, some sought power through democratic means all across LA, and others sought power through guerilla warfare.
leftists
the response to the leftists taking control was the ____ and the _____ seizing power
the military and the right wing
the democratically elected president in Chile was _____ and then was overthrown by ______
Salvador Allende
then
General Augusto Pinochet
Pinochet accused Allende of leading Chile towards ______
communism
in the 1980s, _____ groups, human rights activists, and ______ church pushed for democractic elections.
women's ; Catholic
economic growth had an impact from _______ and economic nationalism
World War II
_____ concluded in making challenges to the economic developments
population explosions
in the 1980s, rising interst rates triggered a ______ crisis that slowed development

many nations borrowed to build industries. they had to pay a third of their foreign earnings on interst payments
debt
the recover from all the challenges the government _______ and _______.
lowered tariffs and encouraged foreign investment
jobs are harder to find in ____
the cities
in the cities, because of the minimum of jobs...____ are still low
wages
____ in the urban life are better than in the rural life
slums
majority of people in poor countries live here?
rural areas
tenant farmers get small land for labor, get no pay and if they need it they have to borrow it, which then gets them into debt
rural life
the government neglected the needs of people in ______ areas, there fore they move to the _____
rural, cities
___ is strong everywhere through out LA
family life
___ are dominant in households
men
___ is where the girls work with their mothers and prepare food, carry water, and look after the young. and the boys take after what their fathers do
rural areas
in the cities, children have more ______, more ______, there is child labor, many poor children rummage through trash, and crimes and _____ lure children in for money
freedom, opportunities, drugs
in ____ women do not question their _____, they have no education, they are ______.
rural, husbands, illiterate
in the cities, women have more _____ outside the home, and more ______ degrees
jobs, university
90% of LA is in the ____ church
Catholic
in the ____ the ties in the church weaken
cities
_____ theology created divisions within the church
liberation
calling on the church to take a more active role in changing the conditions that contributed to poverty
liberation theology
el norte = ?

this happened because of _____ refugees and ____ refugees
The North (United States)

polictical, economic
an agricultural community

land reforms divided haciendas into these
ejidos
trade that had low tariffs and no restrictions
free trade
a foreign-owned plant in which local workers assemble parts into finished goods
maquiladoras
a period of sharp increases in prices
inflation
shares border with the United States
Mexico
very diverse, the north is made up of ruggesd mountains containing a wealth of minerals
Mexico
inland has rainforests and deserts, including the central plateau
Mexico
97 million people

worlds most populous Spanish-speaking country

mostly made up of mestizos
Mexico
NA is still strong, 60 groups speak about 40 languages
Mexico
38% of the population are under the age of 15

*they need schooling and then later on finding jobs will be a challenge, which leads to POVERTY
Mexico
1876-1911, first caudillo. he benefitted the wealthy class, rest of the population, the poorer just got poorer
Porfirio Diaz

*Mexico*
revolts overthrew Diaz and ended up with an 11 year civil war...why? because they had to fight over control of power
Mexico
90% of peasants own no land at all
Mexico
1917 adopted a new constitution, which calle dfor giving land to peasants, protectin the rights of workers, and limiting t he power of the Catholic Church
Mexico
1930s President ______ promoted land reforms
Lazaro Cardenas

*Mexico*
1929-200 the PRI took control
*critics thought of them as: they use fraud and ciolence to stay in power
Mexico
in 2000 PRI lose a race to Vicente Fox Quesada from _____
PAN

*Mexico*
after revolution became a _____ economy
mixed
*Mexico*
poverty still remains a major concern
Mexico
government had to import food to feed everyone
Mexico
government put high tariffs on imports because of the economic nationalism, so factories began producing goods such as cars and appliances
Mexico
4th largest oil producer
Mexico
1980s, oil prices plunged and interest rates on loans rose this got ____ in a deep debt
Mexico
signed NAFTA ( made a huge market with no tariffs and free trade)

also signed free trade agreements with European Union
Mexico
free trade made growth of the ______
maquiladoras
*Mexico*
challenges are mostly natural disasters
Mexico
covers half of South America

coast is most desirable
Brazil
has the sertao, amazon basin, and Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro
Brazil
in the N.E., a dry region covered with scrub
sertao
162 million people
5th largest population in the world
Brazil
has 4 main groups:
-Indians (smallest)
-Blacks (50%) --RACISM IS A BIG ISSUE
-Portugese
-Japanese
Brazil
1/3 of the population is under the age of 15
Brazil
until 1930s, depended on this single crop?
coffee
*Brazil*
ruled from 1930-1945 tried to lessen their dependance on one crop
Getulio Vargas
*Brazil*
1950s an elected president ________, set out to pack 50 years of progress in 5 years
Juscelino Kubitschek
*Brazil*
Kubitschek left huge debt, and unrest grew
Brazil
1964 the army seized power
-welcomed foreign investment
Brazil
miliatry invented gasohol
(ended dependence on oil)
Brazil
"____ miracle" benefited on the upper and middle class and foreigners
Brazilian
*Brazil*
debt was a serious problem

and environmentally safe ways of modernizing was a problem too
Brazil
one of the largest countries in the world
-pampas
-Buenos Aires = capitol
Argentina
36 million people
-most live in cities
-most live in Buenos Aires
-few NA
-1/2 of population is in the middle class
Argentina
not a stable governemtn
Argentina
1946 Peron was elected president (dictator)
-Eva was his wife
-she manipulated people for their money
-when she died, peron was exiled
*then he came back in 1973
Argentina
1955 the army seized power
ruled from 1955-1983
sometiems directly and sometimes by controlling elected leaders
Argentina
when Peron died, Isabell (his new wife) became president
Argentina
1976, military took rule again and made a 'dirty war'
-unrest
-30,000 people disapeared
Argentina
1982, took control of Falkland Island and then the British took them back
Argentina
1983 democracy was restored
Argentina
1989 new president was voted
Argentina
1980s runaway inflation hurt workers and employers
-1985 inflation reached 1000%

*huge foreign debt*
Argentina
making money through pampas and their meats
Argentina
Latin American problems were:
1) social inequality
2) dependance on Europe and U.S.
3) political divisions-revolts
4) geographic barriers, lead to regionalism
these did not work, not a great solution

-poverty = uneven land distribution
-u.s. thought this was bad and thought of it as communism
land reform
because of _____ Chile, in 1969, killed Salvador for the _____
land reforms, land reforms
in ____, civil wars over the land reforms
El Salvador
Cuban revolution took place in?
1959
Fidel Castro =
a communist (Marxist)
Cuba aligned with
the Soviet Union
*ticked U.S. off
Fidel Castro nationalized most of the ???
sugarlands