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64 Cards in this Set

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The fifteenthand sixteenth century voyages of exploration were stimulated mainly by?
The individual explorers hopes of enrichment.
What was proved by Ferdinand Magellane epic voyage?
The globe was indeed spherical, A sea passage existed south of the tip of South America, and the islands called "Spice Islands" could be reached from the East. The journey was a long and difficult one.
Which nation was the most persistently committed to converting the natives of the newly discrovered regions to Christianity?
Spain
What is the correct sequence of explorer-traders in the Far East?
Portuguese, Dutch, and English
The first to engage in the slave trade were the?
Portuguese
What were the most likely motives of the Dutch Captains voyage of discovery?
A desire to deal the Roman Church a blow. A search for personal enrichment. The intention of establishing trade realations with a new partner and the desire to serve as a middleman between East Asia and Europe.
Mercantilism aimed first of all at?
Securing a favorable balance of foreign trade.
Which proved to be the most important of the various new foods introuduced into European diets by the voyages and discovery?
Potatoes
The Sixteenth century inflation affected which group most negatively?
Landholding Nobles
The most devastating effects on the native population brought about by European discovery occured in?
Latin America
How were the Europeans able to expand and explore?
The were able to because of new technology (Cannons Gunpowder Navigation Equipment).
Expansion of Europeans: How were they able to expand?
They were able to because of new technology (Ship Building ,Cannons, Gunpowder Navigation, and Equipment).
Expansion of Europeans: Why did they expand?
Ottomans/Constantinople shutdown access to Asia and India blocking supply routes
Who was the first to explore the unknown world by sailing around the southern tip of Africa?
The Portuguese
Who led the Portuguese exploration to the new world?
Prince Henry the Navigator
What was Prince Henry the Navigator's goal on his exploration?
Goal was to find a new trading route
The Portuguese exploration was a sucess so what did they set up?
Set up a string of factories that were mostly forts.
The Portuguese exploration was a ____ ____ ___ plan for the Portuguese.
Get Rich Quick. • Became the leading trade country
The Portuguese were unable to hold on to the leading trade country because they were to small and ____ would eventually take over.
Spain
Who read the journals of Price Henry The Navigator and wanted to explore?
Christopher Columbus
Who financed the exploration for Christopher Clumbus?
Queen Isabella of Spain financed the exploration after King Ferdinand convinced her
Who was given political control over all the new lands he found by Queen Isabella.
Christopher Columbus
Who started enslaving the people of the native lands he found?
Christopher Columbus
Who left from Spain in 1519 to be the first to sail around the world?
Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan started with 241 men how many made it back to spain?
Started with 241 men only 18 made it back to Spain.
What was the reason the Spanish settled the colonies in the new world?
Gold
God
Glory
Land
How did the mother government maximized trade with their colonies?
Mercantilism
What was Mercantilism?
Said the colonies could only trade with the mother land. The colonies produce the raw materials and the mother country produces the manufactured goods
How did the mother country know if mercantilism was working?
This is achieved when you export more than you import.
What is Triangular Trade?
• Sell rum to England use money to buy slaves, trade slaves for molasses, and then use molasses to make rum.
What was the Columbian Exchange?
The exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the old world and the new world after Christopher Columbus.
Small Pox being the largest killer of all killing over 80% of the population
Who were the Amerindians?
The original people that were in the new world before Christopher Columbus arrived.
What was the Encomienda System?
A system that was established to provide the Spanish with local labor.
The Encomienda System was basically slavery with the difference being this:
Forced labor but the Spanish Goverment said that they had to Christianize, feed, clothe, and protect the workers.
The Mestizos Race was a mixture of?
The Amerindians mixed with the white Spanish.
The Mulattos Race was a mixture of?
The African women mixed with the white Spanish.
Who started the lost Colony and claimed the land of Rannoch Virginia in the name of Queen Elizabeth.
Sir Walter Raleigh
What happened to the lost colony?
Sir Walter Raleigh went for supplies but could not return for 2 years and the entire Colony was gone when he returned.
How was the Protestant Reformation started?
Martin Luther started the Protestant Reformation when he nailed his 95 Theses to the Wittenberg University’s Church door
Matin Luther said that the Catholic Church was corrupt and the Sale of what proved this?
Indulgences
Martin Luther started the reformation but who took it worldwide?
John Calvin took it world wide
What was the most lasting impact of the Protestant Reformation?
Literacy
What was Justification by faith?
Martin Luther said the by faith alone was the factor by which you could be saved. While the Catholic Church taught that good deeds was your salvation
Who study Martin Luther’s writings and made the movement an international theological rebellion.
John Calvin
What was John Calvins theory?
Said the God is all powerful and believed In Pre-destination (One of the Elect). God knows where you are going before you are born.
Who Believed in free will and adult baptism?
Anabaptists (Rebaptizers)
What was the Counter-Reformation?
This was the attempt by the Catholic Church to stop the Protestant Reformation
What was The Council of Trent
It was the first attempt that clearly defined what the Catholics believed but future separated Christianity from Catholics.
What was the Jesuits Order
This was the second attempted to bring people back to the Catholic Church.
What started in Germany but spread to the rest of Europe finally reached a peace treaty with the Treaty of Westphalia
The Thirty Years’ War
What was Royal Absolutism?
Said that the monarchy (King or Queen) has absolute power over the people it rules.
Who was the founder of Royal Absolutism in France?
Cardinal Richelieu
What was Cromwell’s Commonwealth?
A commonwealth is a republic without a monarch
What was the Restoration?
Bringing back a King to the republic restoring the Monarch to the head of government
Civil War Catholics fighting the non Catholics was called what?
Glorious Revolution
What was the result of the Glorious Revolution?
Result was the English bill of rights.
What were the two parts of the Bill of Rights?
The Monarchy and parliament have equal powers
The Monarchy has to be a protestant
Who wrote a book called the Leviathan?
Thomas Hobbes
What was Thomas Hobbes' Theory?
Theory stated that: Humans need a strong government to maintain control of society
Who wrote the two treaties on Government?
John Locke
What was John Lockes Theory?
Theory stated that each person has natural rights life liberty and property and if the government try’s to take that away you have the right to revolt.
The expansion of the Muscovite principality into a major state picked up pace during the sixteenth century under the leadership of who?
Ivan the Terrible
Who established a brutal model by persecuting all who dared to question his right to rule?
Ivan the Terrible
What goverment ruled Russia from 1613 to 1917?
Romanov Dynasty