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70 Cards in this Set

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Manchuria
Chinese blew up Japanese rail line in Manchuria. Japanese troops entered Manchuria, fought Chinese. Turned out Japanese soldiers blew their own line so they could fight Chinese. Japanese governme
The China Incident
Chinese troops and Japanese troops met in the Marco Pollo bridge, neither would back out, shots were fired. Japanese decided to take care of the CHinese problem, US stopped selling Japan oil
Back Door to War
Japanese needed to either get AMerica to lift the trade embargo or find oil in other sources, which would involve war. Japan left China. Late Nov. 1941, Japanese fleet set out to bomb Pearl Harbor. Various US agencies had enough info to be aware of their attack, but they didn't share information. Japanese commander of the attack was Yamamoto. Attack took place Dec. 7 1941
December 7 1941
Pearl Harbor attack
Pearl Harbor
Japan attack on Pearl Harbor, led by Yamamoto. US knew something was going tohappen at 1pm, D.C. time. THey didn't know what. Tried to get word to Pearl, could't get through. Only 2 battleships were destroyed (Arizona and Oklahoma)
Beard Thesis
Beard argues that FDR wanted to go to war with Hitler, was trying to provoke him (front door). Didn't work. FDR went through the back door (pacific). Can't be proved, but Hitler did declare war on US.
World War 2
War of Movement
Tanks, aircraft, and motorized transport. Not used much in WWI, but perfected after, and made WWII a war of movement. Also radio.
World War 2
New Tactics
1. On Land
-Blitzkrieg
2. On the Sea
-U-boats
3. In the air
-Tactical/strategic air warfare
Blitzkrieg
Lightning war, used by Germans. Goal: find a weak point in enemy line, attack. Destroy their radio system, completely disrupt their line. Works well for Hitler in France and England, not in Russia.
War on the Sea
Germans had U-boats. Allies responded by using convoys--groups of ships traveling together, for protection. Germans, in turn, traveled in wolf packs (groupsof subs). Allies could build "liberty ships" (merchant ships) in 60 days. Amphibious warfare: take land troops (not on land) and return them to land (Normandy). New weapon: aircraft carriers.
Amphibious Warfare
take land troops (not on land), return them to land (Ex: Normandy)
War in the Air
Tactical air warfare: developed by Germans.
Stragegic air warfare: developed by Britains. Bombing-oriented. Take the war to their land. Believed bombers would win the war. Allies wanted to destroy German air forced, started bombing German cities. American airforce controlled the skies.
WWII Intelligence
US read Japanese mail with "Magic". British read German mail with "Enigma/Ultra."
Problems with WWII Intelligence
-It's just one weapon
-Not everyone uses it in the same way
-can't always believe what u read
-Can become a security blanket
New WWII Technology
-Radar
-Sonar
-Jet fighters
-Cruise missiles
-Manhattan Project: atomic bomb
Fall of France
Germany conquered Poland. Russia came in and they divided it. Rest of the year, the world expected him to invade France. He didn't Next spring, invaded Norway and Denmark. Norwegian gneral, Quisling, betrayed his country to Germany. Hitler attacked Belgium to get to France. Hit French in a weak spot.Destroyed their line in Belgium. Stopped French and British advance to Belgium. In invasion, Rommel developed best anti-tank weapons. France fell, N. and W. were occupied by Germans. The rest was Vichy France (also Fascist)
Miracle of Dunkirk
During French invasion. French and British sailed to Dunkirk, fortified it. The troops escaped. French surrendered.
American Policy WWII
Wanted to stay neutral at begining. FDR was elected, realized there was a problem with England--they needed money. He came up with Lend-Lease
Lend-Lease
During WWII, America lended or leased equipment to England. At the end of the war, they were to return or replace it. (End of the war, they didn't WANT it back). Hoped that by doing lend-lease, US could avoid going to war.
Battle of Britain
Germany wanted air supremacy over England. German airforce wasn't trained for that. Had no info from England on how they were doing. Almost ahd England destroyed, didn't know it. One pilot bombed London, England bombed Berlin. Germans concentrated on bombing London; lost them the battle because they weren't bombing what mattered
Barbarossa
"Red Beard". Codename for the German invasion of Russia. Germans outnumbered 3-1. Controlled the skies, couldn't take Moscow or Leningrad. Lost because they weren't prepared for winter.
North Africa in WWII
Stalin wanted second front to pull Germans out of Russia. Allies said they would invade France, but they couldn't. They invaded N. Africa instead in the Battle of El Alamein
El Alamein
Allies invaded North Africa. Rommel was defeated by the British. Allies landed in French N. Africa. French began to shoot them (even though they were there to rescue them) because they haded the Brits. Eisenhower led the operation. French Vichy leader, Darlan (fascist) was there. Eisenhower cut a deal with him. Angered Stalin (Darlan Affair). Darlan was assassinated.
Darlan Affair
Darlan was fascist Vichy French leader in N. Africa. Cut a deal with Eisenhower, was assassinated.
Stalingrad
Battle at Stalingrad was a bloodbath. Germans were defeated. Hitler refused to surrender, he lost 500,000 men.
Kursk Battle
Germans lost their remaining armor and tanks. Hitler waited for his new Tiger tanks to be produced before attacking. By that time, Russians outnumbered them 3-1. Turning point of the war. Huge Russian victory.
Invasion of Italy
Before invasions, allies cut a secret deal with Italian government. They kicked out Mussolini.
D-Day and After
Allies invaded Normandy. Allies convinced Germany the "real" battle would be somewhere else. Hitler had his best 2 Panzer divisions at another place. If they had been at Normandy, D-Day would have been different. May 1945, Germans gave up.
Battle of Coral Sea
Pacific battle. US destroyed 1 Japanese carrier, the other was damaged. Japanese turned and went home. Strategic victory for US (they saved Australia). Tactical victory for Japan (they destroyed 25% of US fleet).
Battle of Midway
US is severely outnumbered, but knew Japan's plans because of Magic. Yamamoto made the mistake of dividing his force into 4 parts. US ambushed them. They attacked Midway, lost all 4 of their carriers and their best pilots.
Island Hopping
US forces, led by Nimitz, invaded Japan through Phillipines, island hopping. Douglas A. MacArthur also led troops through Phillippines.
Atomic Bomb
US wants to go after Okinawa. Ran into a new weapon: Kamikaze (Divine Win). 36 US ships were sunk at Okinawa by Kamiikaze. US realized they would be destroyed by Japan. August 6 1945, US dropped A-bomb on Hiroshima. 3 days later, dropped on Nagasaki. Emperor called for peace.
Yalta
War Conference with Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin. Want to talk about the League of Nations--it didn't work. Scratched it. Came up with United Nations instead. Discussed what to do with Germany; divided it into 3 zones (to be controlled by the 3 powers at Yalta). Temporary occupation of Germany (but didn't put it back together for 45 years). Russia liberated/claimed Poland, agreed to hold free democratic elections. Didn't happen until 1989. Stalin promised FDR that 3 months after Germany surrendered, he would declare war on japan. he kept his word.
Cold War
US vs. Soviets. Soviets controlled Western Germany.
Truman Doctrine
Middle Eastern problems. British ambassador told US that they were pulling out of Greece and Turkey. Truman said it should be the US' job to give aid to any people in need.
Truman Doctrine Provisions
-No more isolationism
-Containment was the policy (contain the Commies)
-Made the red scare possible
-Agencies such as CIA were started
The Marshall Plan
Preventative. Says US would send Europe the money they need to help them set up their governments. 22 bilion was given to W. Europe. Most benevolent act in US foreign policy.
Point Four
Started by Truman. Said America would give needed economic, technological, etc. assistance to needy nations in the world. Didn't work.
North Atlantic Treaty
US. Formed NATO. Said "An attack against one is an attack against all." Entangling alliance. (With Truman).
German Division and Berlin Wall
Germany was divided into 4 zones. Berlin was divided into 2 parts: East Berlin was under soviet control. Soviets blockaded E. Berlin from W. Berlin to keep people from moving to W. berlin. US airlifted supplies in. (Operation Vittles). Soviets lifted the blockade.
Korean War
Korea was divided into 2 parts, ruled by 2 govs who both claimed to rule the whole thing. N. Korea invaded S. Korea. US was almost pushed out of Korea, maintained one part. UN was called on to pus N. Koreans out of S. Korea. MacArthur launched "Inchon", was successful. S. Koera was liberated. MacArthur headed north; made the mistake of dividing his forces. Thousands of Chinese commies came in, pushed MacArthur and UN south. They regrouped, pushed north, again. Finally called for a truce. It was an American war, not UN.
Inchan
Most ambitious operation of mankind, launched by Douglas MacArthur during Korean War. Later, MacArthur wanted to drop an a-bomb in China. Wrote a scathing letter to Truman, was fired.
NSC-68
National Security Council, Article 68. Instituted durign Truman's reign. Said the Soviet Union wanted to expand through the world, needed to be contained.
Eisenhower Policies
President after Truman.
1. Brinmanship
2. Roll-Back or Liberation
3. The New Look
Brinkmanship
Eisenhower policy. Look the enemy eye-to-eye to see what he's gonna do (who will blink first)
Roll-Back or Liberation
Eisenhower policy. Said he would liberate Commie natinos (didn't.) Hungary decided to free itself from the Soviets. US refused to go to their aid.
Eisenhower's new look
Balanced the Budget.Built up nuclear defense.
Khrushchev
Stalin's replacement. Called for peaceful coexistence. Met with Eisenhower. World thought cold war would end, didn't work. US and Soviets go to battle again at Berlin. Khrushchev goes to meet Eisenhower at Camp David.
U-2 Fiasco
Khrushchev and Eisenhower were going to meet in Paris with French and British leader to sign a treaty ending the Cold War. Never happened. US U-2 plane was spying on Russia. Ran out of gas, dropped into low altitude. SHot down by Soviets. Khrushchev said if EIsenhower stopped it, he wouldn't do anything. Eisenhower refused. Khrushchev broke up the peace conference.
Sputnik
First satellite, put into air by Soviets. US made a failed attempt to send up sattelite before finaly succeeding. NASA was created. New emphasis in US on science and math ed.
Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis
US tried to take Castro out in the Bay of Pigs. Was a fiasco. Castro feared another invasion, turned to the Soviets. Soviets gave them nuclear weapons. US "quarantined" Cuba--wouldn't let anything in until Khrushchev pulled out his missile. Khrushchev agreed to pull out his nukes, US agreed to never invade Cuba again. Launched a new phase of the nuclear arms race.
Johnson and Vietnam
US Destroyer in the Vietnamese gulf was attacked by Vietnamese PT boats. 2nd destroyer sent to join first one. 6 PT boats attack the destroyers with 12 torpedoes. But 20 torpedoes were fired at them. Planes flying overhead couldn't see any PT boats. Incident never really happened. Johnson passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to authoriz him to take all necessary action to defend the country and free nations like S. Vietnam. America began to fight with the S. Vietnamese against the N. Vietnamese. US said they were defeating Vietcong, but in the Tet offensive, the Vietcong waged a major battle (but were defeated). US felt like they had been lied to, called for troops to come home.
China Card
Nixon. Visited communist china to talk to the leader. Made economic agreements, cultural interchanges, etc. China and the Soviet union didn't like each other. Nixon took advantage of that by buddying up to China to make the Soviets worry they were making secret agreements. Soviets responded by inviting Nixon to Russia. He hoped to get the Soviets to stop sending artillery to N. Vietnam
Detente
Nixon went to Russia, economic, scientific, etc. agreements were signed. Signed SALT I: They would not build any more then a certain number of missiles. When Nixon fell in Watergate, Detente crumbled.
SALT II
Signed by Carter with the Soviets, but when the Soviets entered Afghanistan Carter pulled it from Senate, refused to ratify it. Soviets retaliated by not going to the LA olympics, US won.
SDI
Strategic Defense Initiative, started by Reagan, to shoot down missiles if the Soviets sent them over. He said once they perfected technology they would give it to Russia. Also signed INF--Strategic Arms Reduction. First arms reducing policy. Reduced nuclear weapons in the world.
Khrushchev on Stalin
Accused Stalin of tyrranical rule. Lifted oppression left over by stallin, permitted intellectuals to think/write. yranny still existed, but not as bad as Stalin. Khrushchev said there were different paths to socialism, but didn't allow Hungary to go their own way.
Brezhner
Said if any communist government in Eastern Europe was being threatened, Russia had the right to go in and propit up. Brezhnev Doctrine. (He entered Afghanistan to "prop it up")
Gorbachev
Glasnost--oppeness. Said he would be open. Perestroika--reshaped the economy. Said communist governments in E. Europe could do what they wanted, he would not intervene. Communist govs began to collapse. He dispanded the Warsaw Pact, and laid the foundation for the collapse of communism.
Neo-Orthodoxy: Karl Barth
Swiss German, liberalist. Pastored a reformst church in Switz. WWI starts, he began to study the Bible. Discovered a personal God. Wrote, "Commentary on thhe Epistle of Romans." Denounced liberalism. Argued man could never reach God, didn't deserve grace. Didn't accept biblical innerancy.
Vatican II
Pope John 23 elected. Convenes Vatican II (most important catholic gathering since 1500s). Changed the way mass happened: priest would face congregation, mass would not be in latin, singing was emphasized, meatless fridays were eliminated, interfaith relationships were changed, lessened censorship.
Manchuria
Japanese invasion of Manchuria, the first shot of WWI
Midway
Turning point of WWII.
Clement Attlee
Replaced Winston Churchill. Labourite. Made England the first "welfare state" in W. Europe. Goal was to deal with want, disease, ignorance, squalor, and idleness. Started medical and health care service for the entire population.
Margaret Thatcher
First female Prime Minister. Leader of the Conservative party. cut government expenditures, reduced foreign imports, resisted trade union demands.
Charles de Gaulle
Leader of French resistance to the Germans during WWII, founder of the Fourth Republic. Called out ofretirement to found the 5th republic, which still governs france today.Fourth repblic downfal came from trying to retain the old French Empire. Gaulle took France out of NATO"S military commands. Declined to follow American/British lead and aspired to an independent diplomatic role of France.
Francois Mitterand
Social President of France. Revitalized the Socialist Party, isolated the commies, dropped rhetoric of class struggle, reached out to those who disliked the insensitivity of the Conservatives. Reduced workwee, added a 5th week of vacation, nataionalized the banks and key industries, and employed Keynesian economics. His polices led to slow economic growth.
Konrad Adenauer
Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany. Like Bismarck. Apologized to Israel for the Holocaust, paid them 1 billion dollars. Rearmed Germany, integrated it into NATO, provided domestic stability. Forced from power for arresting a journalist for printing a story on secret NATo maneuvers.
Helmut Kohl
Chancellor of Germany after Adenauer. Led West Germany to modest economic gains. Had to deal with the reunification of Germany and Fremdenharr--neo-Nazi group.
Common Market
six continental countries of France, Italy, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg established the european coal and steel community to control and allocate their coal and steel resources. Significant production results.These 6 nations created the European Economic Community (EEC) or the Common Market. Aimed at the elimination of all internal tariff barriers, the development of a common tariff system and the free movement of labor and capital.expanded to 12 countries.